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Revolutionary Democratic Struggle in Post Independent India

4. August 2003

By Harsh Thakor, India

In 1947 power was transferred into the hands of the Indian Rulers from the British Govt. The Congress Regime betrayed the tortuous militant Revolutionary Struggles of the Indian people. The martyrdom of Comrade Bhagat Singh was betrayed by the Congress Regime which also betrayed the struggles of the Ghadr Party, the 1946 Naval mutiny and the Punnapra Vallayar Struggle in Kerala.

1 Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is a state where historically the socio-economic semi-feudal agricultural Conditions gave rise to a huge agrarian movement. The pro-landlord Andhra Pradesh Government with the state´s armed organs made every effort to suppress the people´s movements ,particularly in rural areas. Over the years thousands of activists of the peasant Movement of various trends from the Marxist Leninist Camp have been arrested or killed in cold blood (falsely projected by police as encounters). The Andhra Pradesh Government policies improved the conditions of the rich peasantry but had no effect on the Agricultural labourers and poor peasants. Police forces have razed villages where people are sympathetic to Marxist Leninist Forces and tortured sympathizers. There have also been several peasant suicides due to inability to pay debt.

In 1946 the historic Telangana Armed Struggle formulated on Maoist lines took place led by the Communist Party of India. 4 factors influenced the movement:

1. Hyderabad was a multi-lingual state comprising 3 linguistic units, the Telegu speaking region, the Marathi Speaking Region and the Urdu Speaking region.

2. The continuous conflict between the Muslim Rulers and the Hindu Subjects. The Muslims though comprising 12%of the population,occupied most of the high posts in the State.

3. 60% of landholdings were under the governmental revenue system known as Diwani, 30% under the Jagirdari system and the remaining 10% were the Nizam´s own estate. Agricultural labourers and tenants were subjected to merciless exploitation.

4. A forced labour termed “Vetti´ was imposed on the tribals and backward communities. Each family had to send one member of the family for labour. No money was paid to him in cash or kind.

5. The Conditions of the working class were awful.

6. The British monopoly of Indian Resources at the beginning of the 2nd World War were increased.

1000´s of acres of land was distributed in People´s Courts. Guilty landlords were tried and people´s Self defence Corpses defended the villages from attacks of Army and Police. Nehru sent the Army in and ruthlessly crushed the Uprising. This long protracted Struggle had set up village Committees which facilitated re-distribution of land to the landless and poor peasants. The Vetti System was virtually abolished. The capitulationism of the Communist Party of India to electoral politics led to the surrender of the Armed Struggle.

In 1958 the Srikakulam Girijan Sangham was formed. This was a separate organization formed for the protection of the tribal´s rights .

The Sangham was formed in 1958 under the leadership of the Communist Party of India. The Issues included illegal taxes and extortions by landlords, vetty (Forced Labour),unfair practices in the purchase of minor forest produce gathered by the Girijans, and wages for Agricultural labour. The first Girijan Public meeting was held at Mondem Khal in 1961 when 4000 people from hundreds of villages heard about the Conspiracy of the landlords and the Girijan Resistance. The base of the Girijan Association was enlarged and the non-Girijans of the plains began to support the movement. At the 1964 Panchayat Elections, the Girijans participated around such democratic issues and defeated the landlord candidates. However the village Girijan committees proved more effective as means to represent Girijan demands and implement them. The Girijan Village Committees had begun to function as parallel courts in the late 1960´s.Now the Girijan Resistance took shape of a major agrarian movement. Land was re-distributed, village level defence squads were set up People´s Courts were launched. These Peoples Courts were known in Telegu as the Ryotanga Sangram Samiti. The Government counterattacked launching a fresh bout of repression. Mass arrests took place. Villages were raided, police camps were set up etc. False Encounters were staged. In Maripadu and Boddapadu villages whole communities were illegally held. Police Forces would surround villages by night and randomly picked up people giving them prolonged detention and torture Villages sympathetic to Revolutionaries were attacked in the Vietnam style.

In the 1970´s the main features of the Revolutionary movement in Andhra Pradesh were the emergence of the revolutionary Student Movement influenced by the Maoist Naxalbari trend. The Founder of the Revolutionary Students movement was Comrade George Reddy, a University Gold Medallist who formed the Progressive Democratic Stidents Group. He was murdered by Akhil Bharatiya Vishwa Hindu Parishad Goons for leading a movement against Corruption on the Campus. .Organisations like the Radical Student Union, the Democratic Students Union. and The Progressive Democratic Students Union. The Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union formed in 1973 was influenced by Charu Mazumdar and led several student campaigns and also in the 1980´s and 1990´s initiated Go To Village Campaigns in the Villages where the politics of Agrarian Revolution was propogated. The Radical Students Union called for election boycott. The Progressive Democratic Students Union influenced by Chandra Pulla Reddy led several campaigns on the Campus and gave solidarity to the peasant struggles. The P.D.SU however supported Election candidates of the Chandra Pulla Reddy Group and opposed Election Boycott. During the Emergency the Progressive Democratic Students Union was the strongest Organisation in the Revolutionary Camp in Andhra Pradesh and played a heroic role resisting the dark days of emergency. It worked through secretist style of functioning and led huge protests against repression on peasants and workers and for the repeal of black laws. Jampala Prasad was a famous Martyr in the Student days. ThE democratic Students Union concentrated principally on Student Issues, but also gave solidarity to Peasant Struggles. These organization led several campaigns for Cheaper Prices for Textbooks for Students, Library Facilities ,proper Classrooms etc. In 1978 a new Organisation the Democratic Students Organisation was formed upholding Nagi Reddy. These 3 student organizations held massive joint demonstrations opposing the Russian Invasion of Afghanistan in 1980,against False police encounters of Revolutionary Activists of Marxist Leninist Groups, for proper blackboards in classrooms etc. In the 1980´s the Police Encounter death s continued where several Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union Activists were martyred. The Radical Students Union had earlier facilitated the formation of the Rytu Coolie Sangham, a peasant Organisation, which staged it´s 1st Conference in 1985. In the early 1980´as the Radical Youth league was formed which played a prominent role in peasant Struggles.

The other predominant feature of the Revolutionary Movement in Andhra was for the Democratic Rights Movement. In 1974 the Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Committee was formed while in 1975 the Organisation of Protection for Democratic Rights was formed. These Organisations continuously propagated against falsely staged police encounters, Black Lawas, illegal detention of democratic Activists. Police repression non workers and peasant Struggles etc. The Organisation of Protection for Democratic Rights played a significant role in linking the democratic Rights movement with the socio-economic exploitative conditions for the people and propagating that the Fundamental Democratic Right was the right to Struggle It brought out a historic Report in 1977 on the Srikakulam Movement and the False police Encounters and also carried reports on incidents of Flood and drought. It also actively investigated and fought against Police torture cases. The Organisation did several joint campaigns with peasant organizations exposing the true causes of Drought which was the pro-landlord policy of the state. From 1982 to 1990 this organization conducted bi-annual State Conferences. The Civil Liberties Committee Activists played a great role in setting up Civil Liberties committees at Village levels and in every false police encounter took the greatest initiative in investigating Incidents and bringing the guilty policeman to the book. Activists like Dr Ramanadham, Gopi Rajjanna, Jappa Laxma Reddy, Prabhakar Reddy and laid their lives fighting the iron feet of oppression. Advocate Prabhakar Reddy from Warangal bailed out Hundreds of democratic Peasant activists arrested under False Charges. In January 1992 he feel victim to Police Bullets.Jappa Laxma Reddy ,a veteran of the Telengana Movement wasa November 1986.Dr Ramnadham devoted his entire practice into the welfare of working class patients and gave great solidarity to the peasant´s movememt. He went out of the way to treat the sick villagers and always advocated a revolutionary democratic health system against the imperialist sponsored Medical System. In November 1985 he was killed in cold blood in his clinic. In 1985 Gopi Rajjanna went out of the way to uphold the right of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union and the Rythu Coolie Sangham in holding their programmes and fought a tenacious battle for the release of convicted prisoners on false charges. The Police killed him in a false encounter. In October 1986 K.V.Prasada Rao a veteran in the Democratic Rights Movement and president of the Organisation for Protection of Democratic Rights expired. He had played a major role as an advocate for defending peasants rights during the Telengana Peasant Struggle of the late 1940´s and also initiated the first Civil Liberties Committee meeting with poet Sri Sri. He played a major role in the Lawyers movement as well as the building of the correct trend in the Democratic Rights Movement.

The Cultural movememt combating Feudalism and Imperialism was led by the People´s literary and Cultural Federation, the Anuyodhya and the Jana Natya Mandali. Street Plays and village programmes were held protesting Imperialism, oppression of landlords, false killing of Democratic Activists, Repression on the Working Class . Communalism and casteism. etc.

The Agrarian Revolutionary Movement in Recent years suffered great repression. Several Innocent peasant activists have been arrested or killed in falsely staged encounters. Several heroic protest rallies have been led against them by democratic forces like Radical Students Union, Rythu Coolie Sangham, Progressive Democratic Students Union Etc.(Organisation of different trends within the camp)The Major revolutionary Group supporting the Charu Mazumdar line formed People´s Courts ,where guilty landlords were punished and thousands of acres of land have been re-distributed. One may debate the tactical line of this group which has often resorted to the Annihilation of the Class Enemy and perhaps violated democratic Functioning but any democrat has to uphold it´s revolutionary democratic Contribution in the Peasant Movement. Up to the early 80´s the Chandra Pulla Reddy Group and the Nagi Reddy Groups led a significant movement but due to continuous splits internally their movements virtually capitulated. In Andhra Pradesh heroic Protests were held protesting the ban on a major Revolutionary Group and the false police killings of three of their major leaders. One may not advocate Maoism or one maybe right in claiming that the Organization has left sectarian or adventurist functioning but a democrat has to uphold the revolutionary democratic Right to Struggle. In Recent years some of the most heroic joint rallies of Communist Revolutionaries belonging to various trends have been staged. involving thousands of people demanding the arrest of guilty policeman. And compensation to Families of assassinated Victims.

2 Punjab

In this state despite the Green Revolution where Indira Gandhi´s Congress Government claimed it made a great Economic Change only the landlord classes and Rich Farmers benefited from the changes. Tractors were introduced, bank loans were given ,new machinery was imported and given. However it caused further indebtedness to the poor peasantry who were unable to pay their loans. They were also unable to utilize the machinery which was too sophisticated for the poorer peasants. Landlors became absentee landlords who deployed tractors and machinery at the cost of the merciless Exploitation of the Landless peasants. Overall still semi-feudal Relations in Agriculture despite Capitalist Development.

a. Pre-Khalistani Period

In the late 1960´s the Punjab Students Union was formed to build a revolutionary democratic Student´s Movement in Punjab. The upsurge of the revolutionary youth worldwide under the influence of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China and Che Guevera´s heroism echoed in the formation and Struggles of the Punjab Students Union. This forum demarcated itself from Revisionist influence and in 1966 led a historic struggle against a cinema owner who was guilty of blackmarketing. Comrade Jagtar Singh fell victim to bullets. The Punjab Students Union led by Comrade Prithipal Singh Randhawa played a historical role in the revolutionary movement of Punjab. In 1974 it led agitation supporting striking policeman. In November 1974 with the Naujavan Bharat Sabha it led the historic Moga Sangram rally. The Punjab Students Union took their struggle to the villages and built up a strong peasant´s movement. During the emergency several Important leaders of the Punjab students Union were arrested but the organisation heroically resisted the oppression of the era by leading many a protest on the Campuses. The P.S U also led agitations protesting fee hikes in colleges. In 1979 the Akali Dal goons assassinated Prithipal Singh Randhawa, the P.S.U leader. A famous state wide protest took place involving 10,000 people. Slogans were raised demanding the punishing of the culprits. The masses fury expressed itself like a prairie fire. In the 1980´s the Union Split into factions but during the Khalistani movement various factions of the Punjab Students Union like the Dhaliwal Singh Group, the Jagtar GroupSheed Prithippal Singh Randhawa Group resisted the Communal Pro-Khalistani All India Sikh Students Federation. They led protest combating the Fascists and often joined hands with leftist mass organizations in beating terrorists. Other organizations of significance in this era were the Naujavan Bharat Sabha, (a revolutionary Youth organisation which was originally formed by anti-colonial martyr BhagatSingh), the Wahikar Union, and the Kirti Kisan Sabha a huge peasant organization. The last named held huge peasant agitations and earlier trials of landlords through trials.

b. Khalistan Period Democratic Struggle

The Khalistani movement marked a historic epic in the history of post-Independent India. This reactionary communal fascist movement advocated the liberation of Sikhs and a separate state to be carved out for the Sikh people. Khalistani ideology advocated a separate theocratic state based on all the tenets of Sikhism. Jagjit Singh Chauhan was the founder of this movement in the late 60´s abroad. Natively from Punjab he had settled abroad and in Britain formed Sikh religious groups advocating a new state for the Sikhs. The Khalistani dictates included ban on cigarettes, ban on eating meat, ban on drinking liquor, ban on beauty parlours, prohibition of shaving and compulsion of women to wear Salwar Kameez. The people had to observe the Khalistani code in all ways of life. In Punjab the Akali Dal represented the religious Sikh politics through the Akali movement which had its origin in the Singh Sabha movement of the late 20´s which tried to communalise a secular a anti-imperialist movement. To divert it with the blessings of the British the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak committee was formed. The Akali movement professed the Anandpur Sahib resolution that converted several democratic issues into Sikh demands. Democratic demands of the people like the arrest of the Jodhpur detenues, the sharing of river waters with Haryana, the transfer of the capital from Chandigarh to Amritsar, the punishing of criminals during Delhi riots were taken up as religious issues. However the fundamental difference of the Akali Dal with the Khalistanis was that they wanted to gain power within the Indian State through electoral means, while the Khalistanis advocated total religious liberation struggle to de-throne the Indian State. There were forces within the Akali Dal which openly supported the Khalistani armed actions and election boycott like the Prakash singh Badal faction of the Akali Dal. In the mid 80´ Sant Longowal, the Akali Dal president was assassinated by the Khalistanis for was collaborating a settlement with the ruling Congress.

In the Early 80´s the Khalistani Movement emerged demanding a separate Sikh State. The Khalistani forced the Punjabi people into accepting their fundamentalist programme. The Khalistani terrorist factions were given patronage by the 2 opposing Ruling Class Parties ,the Akali Dal and the Congress I. These parties used the terrorist faction against each other to gain power. (Infact Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale was created by the Congress to defeat the Akali Dal) Several Innocent Sikhs feel victims to police bullets in the false pretext of suppressing Khalistani terrorism. In 1984 in June the Indian Army carried out Operation Bluestar to suppress the Forces of Khalistani terrorists that had taken refuge in the Golden Temple. (Sikh religious temple)Communist Revolutionaries led by the Initiative of the Unity Center of Communist Revolutionaries of India Nagi Reddy Group and the Central Team of the C.PI.ML with 5 other revolutionary Groups set up the Anti Communal and Anti Repression Front to resist both the Khlaistani and Sate terror. During the Khalistani Movement the Front against Repression) wrote a new Chapter in the history of the Punjabi Peoples´ Democratic Movement. In Moga on July 10th 1987 it led a historic rally of people armed with traditional weapons against the Khalistani fascists, exposing their programme (The United Akali Dal led by Baba Joginder Singh) and propagating the revolutionary Secular Politics. People marched from all over the State propagating slogans, …‘Na Hindu Raj Na KhalisatAn, Raj Kare Mazdur kisan´ It appeared that a huge red flame had lit Moga. Earlier under the leadership of the Front the masses had beaten up Khalistani Activists threatening the life of Front leader Megh Raj Baghtuana. The Front led a heroic protest against the killing of 2 Hindu Shopkeepers (Addressing the Funeral Gathering) as well as a struggle against Khalistani fascist forces seizing Temple land in the name of religion. The Front led several Struggles of Mass Revolutionary Resistance against the Communal Fascists even in areas where there work started from Scratch. Families were trained and organized in self defence against the terrorist Forces and many a time resisted the efforts of the Khalistan fascists in imposing their programme. Bastions of Mass Revolutionary Resistance were created by the Front. On April9th 1991 18 Front Activists Including leaders such as Megh Raj Baghtuana and Jagpal Singh were murdered at the hands of the Khalistani forces in Sewewala Village in Faridkot District. A heroic rally was held consisting of 10,000 People where a self defence barricade was made. 2 years later a heroic commemoration meeting was led in the same village after a huge political and mass mobilization campaign. In the same period democratic revolutionary programmes were undertaken by organizations like the Association for Democratic Rights, the Kirti Kisan Union led by the Chandra Pulla Reddy Group, the Revolutionary Unity Center Etc. All these organizations critically propagated against the Khalistani forces and the State Terrorism. In 1977 the Association for Democratic Rights was founded which is of great significance in protecting the Revolutionary Democratic Movement. It continuously brought out reports on the Khalistani and the State repression and gave material and moral support to all Democratic Struggles. The Kirti Kisan Union heroically guarded the villagers from the onslaught of the Khalistani terrorists as well as exposed false encounters of Sikh Youth. The Kirti Kisan Union had also led a secular peasant movement for remunerative prices and opposing re-payments of debts. The Revolutionary Unity Center a Marxist Leninist Front lead a historic March in March 1987 in commemoration of Bhagat Singh(Protesting against the Khalistani forces and demanding a democratic Solution to the Punjab Problem) through the districts of Amrisar, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar and Nakodar. Prominent Martyrs in the movements against the Khalistani Terrorists were Arjun Singh Mastana, Darshan Singh Canadian, Lal Inder Singh Lalli Summet PreetLar (Communist Party of India), Deepak Dhawan (Communist Party of India Marxist), Baldev Singh Mann, Jaimal Singh Padda, Sarabjjet Singh (Chandra Pulla Reddy Group-leaders of Kirti Kisan Union), Megh Raj Baghtuana, Jagpal Singh,Gurjant Singh, Karam Singh (Unity Centre of Communist Revolutionaries Marxist Leninist-Nagi Reddy Group), Malkiat Singh (R.C.C.I.M.L-Punjab Student Union leader) and Nidhan Singh Gudhan (Central Team of the C.P.I.M.L) Revolutionary Democrats dipped their blood in the memory of these martyrs who displayed death defying courage. In the Revolutionary trend the contribution of Comrades Amolak Singh and Jaspal Jassi was of Immense value at the organizational level. Amolak Singh convened the Anti-Communal Front at the State Level while Jaspal Jassi played an instrumental role in the organizational Implementation of Programmes. The Punjabi Revolutionary Journal Surkh Rekha made the greatest contribution amongst Revolutionary Journals by exposing the Secrets of the Khalistani Movement. On the Cultural Front the Contribution of Comrade Gursharan Singh´s Amritsar Natak Kala Kendra and the Punjab Loksabhakarachya Manch was immense. Through street plays and songs there echoes reverberated amongst the Punjabi people .

c. Post Khalistani Period

In the Post Khalistani People under the leadership of organizations like the Lok Morcha, Punjab Dehati Mazdoor Union, and the Bharatiya Kisan Union Ekta have created a great revolutionary democratic movement. Under the leadership of the Martyrs commemoration Committee a heroic memorial Conference was held in Rajeana Village in Faridkot District commemorating the Martyrs of the Naxalbari Movement in Punjab on November 12th 1994 –the largest gathering of revolutionary Forces for 25 Years. All the Communist Revolutionary Martyrs during the Khalistani period and the pre-Khalistani Period were commemorated. The Lok Morcha was founded to create a base for a revolutionary democratic Movement. The Morcha first held a heroic shaheedi (Memorial Meetings for the Martyrs) Conference in Bhatinda comprising of 10,000 People commemorating the Martyrs of the Freedom Movement-Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru. The Campaign was followed by several campaigns to expose the fake Indian Independence. Later the Morcha held election campaigns in 1997,1998 and 1999 with the Punjabi Agricultural Workers Union which had a lightning effect on the Punjabi Masses. Handbills were brought out with a revolutionary democratic Charter explaining the people the relationship with the Semi-colonial semi- Feudal political system had with their day to day lives. The masses were awakened like a red light radiating over them. The anti-people Ruling Class politics was fully exposed and the people were instilled with the necessary self-confidence of building their own democratic Institutions. In many places they thwarted the efforts of Ruling Class Party Candidates from campaigning or standing for Election. Earlier in March 1997 in memory of Bhagat Singh Illumination Rallies were held in Moga. The People hearts reverberated like a burning flame echoing the memories of the sacrifices of Bhagat Singh and his Comrades in 1931. The Punjabi Dehati Mazdoor Union (Agricultural Workwers Union) led heroic Struggles against land Auctioning in Balahar Vinju. Under the leadership of the Peasant Union the peasants thwarted the Ruling Congress leaders from auctioning government land and heroically staged their Red Flag and cultivated the land in Protest. Showing great revolutionary Zeal they resisted the Police, Landlord Combine who attempted to sabotage their bid for holding a Conference in Sewewala Village in 1993.Villages including Women drove Police away who were guarding the Checkposts!Similarly the Bharatiya Kisan Union Ekta led a heroic Struggles opposing Gloabalisation policies and for implementation of democratic demands of the Peasantry. Big rallies have been staged opposing the G.A.T.T, theW.T.O, I.M.F etc. The Struggles were also led opposing payment of Loans by the peasantry who were often forced into committing suicide. A famous struggle was held protesting the unjust death of a farmer Mithoo Singh who was cheated by a commission agent Ashok Kumar. The Union has led several heroic struggles confronting and getting Commission agents to the book who cheated farmers into borrowing loans and also demanded huge loan re-payments on Interest. A popular peasants march was staged at Mour Mandi in the case of Mithhoo Singh and later a well –planned conference was held in Maiser Khanna where the peasants heroically resisted the attempts of the Police to sabotage the conference. Police Forces were deployed at two ends of the village to block participants from participating in the conference but the peasants reminiscent of an army breaking an impregnable barricade or a fort broke through the Police defence. Earlier for the Conference the peasants had set up village barricades at the outer openings of many village streets like an army defending a fort. Later massive rallies were held in protest in Bhatinda District. 60 Vehicles carrying about 1700 to 2000 people swarmed the villages. A week later a massive state-wide rally was held in Chandigarh, the Capital City protesting the police attack. Through protracted struggles several commission agents were forced to repay the amount they cheated that particular peasant. In Jethuke the Bharatiya Kisan Union (Ekta held a protest which will be remembered in the annals of the revolutionary Movement in Punjab. The Peasantry was demanding efficient Electricity Trransformers and the unjust bus fares of Private Operators In Protest the peasants started a trolley Service, boycotting the buses. The Police thwarted the peasants bid of starting their own Trolley Service by attacking the peasants. The Peasants staged a heroic rally in protest where 2 peasants were killed in cold blood in what the police called an encounter. To cover up the Incident the police held a cremation meeting disallowing the participation of the peasantry. However the people retaliated holding their own commemoration Ceremony for the Martyrs in Jethuke Village in Bhatinda District. On the day of the commemoration programme held in a particular village in Punjab the police deployed Checkposts blocking the Entry of peasants. The People broke through the cordons like a spear piercing Flesh. They stormed into the conference venue like a turbulent river flooding the land. At the Conference it was demanded that the Victims families would be awarded 5 lakhs in Compensation and the Culprits would be arrested. Some weeks later the Union staged a huge rally organizing the peasants in 12 detachments protesting against the Firing. The detachments outmanoeuvred 4 police Checkposts attempting to block the. The event resembled a tornado!

3. Bihar

Bihar in mode of production is the most feudal State in India. Conditions are similar to the medieval 15th Century. Bihar had a long history of feudal landlord repression and the ruling landlord Senas (Landlord Armies) brutally repressed the poor and landless peasant´s attempts to struggle for their just right over land. In Bihar the peasant movement lit a torch in the history of the Indian People struggling against Feudalism. Bihar had a major revolutionary peasant movement challenging landlord oppression of upper casteds like the Bhumihars, Rajputs etc. 59.7 percent of families held 5 percent of arable land while 2.8% held 44.2%. 77.4% of those who owned more than 10 acres were upper caste. The Emergence of 3 Revolutionary Peasant Organisations or Fronts namely the Bihar Pradesh Kisan Sabha, the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti and the Krantikari Kisan Commitees was of historic significance. In the early 1980´s the Revolutionary Peasant Movement the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti led a great peasant movement particularly in Jehanabad District. Thousands of acres of land was re-distributed. The Bihar Pradesh Kiisan Sabha too played a predominant role till it capitulated to Electoral Politics. Various struggles for partial demands and against landlord repression were led by the peasant organisation. In June 1984 Comrade Krishna Singh was martyred (Killed by a landlord Gang) who was the first Secretary of the M.K.S.S. while conducting a meeting in Palamau District. Amassive Protest was held in Daltangonj against the killing which spread to various villages. 35 Rajput Peasants and Landlords involved in the murder were arrested and charged. M.K.S.S units began to be built up. Mass mobilizations challenged landlords power. In April 1986 a firing took place in Arwal town in Jehanabad District whereby 18 Innocent peasants fighting for land under the leadership of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti were fired upon. In 1986 after the Arwal Massacre the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti was banned. The major struggles which these mass organisations led were in Jehanabad and Palamau districts. Here the peasant movement had it´s most profound influence. In 1991 the Lok Sangram Morcha, a forum of 7 revolutionary mass organisations led a massive rally in Palamau district consisting of 10,000 people protesting against …‘Operation Agnidoot. In Palamau as a result of strong repression faced by the Sunlight Sena the democratic organisations protested through a protest rally. Similarly in Jehanabad districts rallies and conventions were organised. They exposed the oppression on the peasantry by landlord gangs like the Bhoomi Sena, the Lorrik Sena and the Brahmarshi Sena. They also condemned …‘Operation Rakshak´, where great police repression took place on people from all walks of life. On 30th November 1990 a massive peasant gathering was organised All the speakers explained the peasants the need to form a strong agrarian revolutionary peasant movement and the need for the middle peasants to unite with the landless. Democratic resolutions were passed. On 19th April 1989 a convention was held in Arwal commemorating the massacre in 1986. The programme culminated in Gaya where a massive conference of landless and poor peasants took place. Another significant feature of the movement at that time was the jail struggles as well as struggles for democratic Rights ,particularly in Jehanabad and Palamau districts. A struggle was held in Jehanabad jail protesting against corruption of jail atrocities led by Sachidanand Prabhat. On 16th January a massive gathering was organised by the Lok Sangram Morcha and the Bharat Naujavan Sabha. A memorandum was presented to the jail authorities. In Daltonganj, in Palamau district the Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a protest against the arrest of activist Ramkeshwar Singh of the Janmukti Parishad. Later in 1993 a massive struggle was carried out in Daltonganj jail against malpractices. Political prisoners were denied the most basic rights. There was no proper food, water, sleeping facilities, sanitation or medical attention. The jail administration was also hand in hand with corrupt contractors and politicians. The political prisoners launched a hunger strike against the T.A.D.A. At the end of the protest a memorandum was given by the organisations.

Various struggles for partial demands and against landlord repression were led by the peasant organization. A typical example was in Garwah district. Here the area was dominated by Rajput landlords and the people were subjected to barbaric oppression. When they struggled they were trampled upon by the landlord´s Sunllight Sena who killed 4 people including a brother and 3 minor children. The people retaliated but only for the Sunlight Sena again attacking them and burning down Karui village displacing 200 families. After a long protracted struggle led by the peasant organisation 6 of the Rajput landlords surrendered before the people. Under the leadership of the Parishad the displaced people captured some gair Marzua land near Karui village and a new village was called named after Shaheed Kunal. The landlord leaders got in touch with the reactionary leaders and attacked Shaheed Kunal Nagar in large numbers, kidnapping 7 people and killing 7 people. A state wide protest took place all over the State

Another Struggle took place in 1992 in Akbarpur village. The Samiti had entered the area in 1987 taking up the issue of a dalit Tola being razed to the ground. After 2 Bhumihar landlords had been annihilated. The M.K.S.S helped the Dalit families rebuild their houses. Later the struggle for wages was also taken up. Only after a protracted struggle did the peasants win the struggle for minumum wages. In 1992 the struggle for land began. Crop Seizure programmes were taken up and peasants were organised not to work in the houses and fields of the reactionary families. A strong economic blockade was launched. The landlords attempted to bring their ploughs and bullocks in large numbers but their attempts were thwarted by the people. The village people seized the ploughs and bullocks In 1993 the peasant organisation led a heroic struggle in the Palamau-Garwah region.

On 25th May 1993 the peasants burnt the palatial house of Budhinarayan Sah´s, a notorious landlord who owned 1700 acres of land and who used to tie rebellious peasants to huge anthills of red ants. For over 4 years the people in the area had waged a struggle ransacking his house and seizing arms.7,000 acres of land which he had criminally seized was re-captured by the peasants and the notorious class enemy was forced to flee the village.

Similarly land struggles took place in other districts of Bihar like Jehanabad, Gaya, Patna, Khagaria, Begusurai, Buxar, Rohtas, Bhabhua and Aurangabad districts. Struggles were also carried for people´s authority. People´s courts were set up to punish guilty offenders.

In 1996 Bihar had100 landlords who owned more than 500 acres of land and 6000landlords who owned more than 100acres of land each. Between 1995 to 1998the police assassinated over 100 Activists of Marxist Leninist Groups in Cold Blood. As late as 1996, in a few areas of Bihar alone, the landless peasants had occupied 12,000 acres of land. Under the leadership of revolutionary Movements the Bihar government not only organized military combing operations in the revolutionary Struggles of the peasantry, but indirectly or directly supported the brutal landlord Seen like the Ranbir Sena.

The Bharat Naujavan Sabha (Indian Revolutionary Youth Front) in the Revolutionary Youth Movement and in the 1990´s the revolutionary Student Organisations the Democratic Students Union, the Progressive Student and Youth Front and the Revolutionary Students League played a predominant role. The Bharat Naujavan Sabha played a predominant role in struggles for Improvement in conditions of Jails and hospitals and also helped the enhancement of the revolutionary Peasant Movement. It also led protests on democratic Rights Issues for the release of political prisoners or for the arrest of guilty policeman in False Encounter Killings. The Bharat Naujavan Sabha protested the demolition of the Babri Masjid in December 1992 in the Form of Cycle Rallies In Jehanbad, Daltangonj and Bokaro Districts. Their activists in Daltangonj heroically resisted Communal Vishwa Hindu arishad Elements. The Revolutionary Student´s League led a Go To Villages Campaign protesting against the Babri Masjid demolition. In December 1992 a huge protest was held by the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parisad and the Revolutionary Students League against the death sentence awarded to 13 Harijan revolutionary peasant activists for murdering 13 Rajput Landlords in retaliation in Dalechak Baghaura in May1987 (Not recognized as political prisoners). The Democratic Students Union and the Revolutionary Students league fought on Student issues, particularly over the corruption of managements. The Administration of colleges in Bihar is run principally by the Upper Caste Mafia. These Organisations fought against this unjust monopoly and for the rights of lower caste Students. They also protested against Fee Rises. Go To Village Campaigns were initiated by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the Democratic Students Union in the villages in Jehanabad, Palamau, Khagaria, Daltangionj, Bhagalpur Districts Etc propagating the politics of Agrarian Revolution. The issues of floods and drought were also taken up and village level committees were set up to ensure protection against floods. Predominant martyrs to have laid down their lives in the students and Youth movement have been Anil Ojha of the Democratic Students Union, Vijay of the Revolutionary Students League. Chanchal and Pankaj of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha Manju of the Revolutionary Women´s Front etc. At the Cultural level in Bihar the most significant role was played by the Revolutionary Cultural Organisations like the Krantikari Sanskritik Sangh and the Abhivyakti. Continuous Cultural programmes were taken out propagating agrarian Revolutionary Politics and combating the feudal imperialist Culture.

The All India People´s Resistance Forum has played a significant role in rallying the democratic Forces in Bihar. In 1998 it organized a state wide protest against the Laxmanpur Bathe massacre by the Ranbir Sena on the Harijans consisting of Revolutionary Groups with different trends. It also led a major campaign against State Repression in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Dandkaranya all over the state. It was the first ever of it´s kind in Bihar.

4 Orissa

Malkangiri is the poorest district of Orissa, itself the poorest state in the Country in Orissa the Malkangiri Adivasi Sangh has led a historic movement of Adivasis. The Adivasis for may years had conducted many a struggle against reservation of vast areas under the forest Act and against the repression and exploitation of forest, revenue and police officials. Through this process the tribals established many villages in the reserved forest areas and were mass arrested. Thousands of tribals assembled at Balimela in the Manaskhunda jungle belt and declared formation of the “Jan Pal Sangh.” They refused to leave the spot. The `Jan Pal Sangh` was formed which organized a 10,000 strong protest. In 1983 the …‘Jan Pal Sangh´ was re-named the Malkangari Adivasi Sangh which held it´s first conference. For some years due to revisionist influence the activities of the Sangh came to a lull. The Sangh was re-organised in 1989..In the early phase the Sangh led debt-cancellation Struggles,against the Janata Dal Regime`s declaration of cancellation of rural debts. The Sangh gheraoed banks like the Panchvatoi Grameen bank protesting loan repayments. Land-grab movements were organized in Pada Magazine village, where forest officials seized 150 acres of land purchased by the tribals and the tribals under the Sangh re-captured their land. In May June 1991 500 acres of tribal land was re-captured by Adivasis in 5 villages of Pandharipani Panchayat. In Tapu, the Sangh occupied landlords` land which was captured through usury and liquor selling 30 years ago. (Mukudpalli,Bejing and Jamuguda).The Sangh went on to fight major struggles against the forest department at Birlakhanpur Panchayat where the government had seized 500 acres of tribal land. A heroic land struggle was also held in Chawlamendhi Panchayat where the forest department grabbed 200 acres of Dalit`s land. After broad based mobilisation a huge rally was held in the village and the land was re-occupied. The Sangh also fought against false arrests of tribals in criminal cases.50%of the Sangh`s cadres were arrested and booked in various cases. Heroic self -defence was carried out in Doraguda-Gunthawada against attacks of contractors as well as Paplut Panchayat. Squads of a revolutionary Group function in the same area of a major revolutionary Group and the activities of a Sangh are a major lesson in the contrast of the mass revolutionary line to that of Squad actions. The Sangh has held 2 conferences. The struggles of the Padmagiri-Pandripani opposing the combine of forest contractors, politicians and adminstration, and the struggle against the Hamco mining projectand the Adivasis Struggles for their rights over Bamboo are a testimony to this. In Padmagiri, a death -defying struggle was staged against the anti-people actions and manoeuvres as well as the criminal loot of forest assets and intimidatory attacks by the forest-contractor-police administration combine of the area. The Struggles main significance was the right to security of Land.

The peasant masses were converted from an unorganized force to a major force able to carry out organized self defence in opposition to the enemy combine. It was the equivalent of a stream converting itself into a torrent. Mass resistance has been built against the felling and transportation of trees through a major protracted struggle staged against the notorious G.Subhash Chandra Bose, a forest Contractor who became a smuggler and connived with the police in felling trees and depriving the Adivasis of the Tulenguda region of their livelihood. Various rallies were held at the collector`s office and the Adivasis strength outpowered the forces of the Contractor and his henchmen. In the Tulenguda -Kanjoli pocket and the Rangamatiguda-Podarapalli pocket there were great examples of the Adivasis unitedly opposing felling of trees and setting up people`s checkposts at different points in Tulenguda and Padmagiri as well as asserting their rights. In Podarapalli the villagers were so determined that when they felt their demands were being side-tracked, fiercely reacted. Finally on January 28th and 29th the Contractor`s final attempt at thwarting the Adivasis (re-capturing right to fell the trees) was foiled by the resolute resistance of the Adivasis.2,500 Adivasis rallied with traditional weapons against the tyrant who came with 50 armed goondas .The Sangh contingent deployed bows and arrows to overpower the might of the Contractor`s forces. Ultimately the enemy had to flee in jeeps! That day the Adivasis wrote a chapter in their struggle against oppression.

In Orissa a great movement emerged in 1986 protesting on the building of a missile base in Baliapal village. Thousands of villagers thronged in historic protest blocking the forces of the State Apparatus. This movement was of enormous significance as the Indian Government always propagated that India was military weak and had to militarily build up. Like Many third world powers who hide their defence policies the Indian Govt tried to hide it´s militaristic chauvinistic ambitions of becoming a major military power. Ultimately the villagers won and the building of the base was transferred to another region. However the main thrust had to be on opposing the base with the link to opposing India´s militaristic Ambitions at the cost of providing basic food and shelter for the people. This was not highlighted sufficiently. The correct trend in this regard was propagated by the Ganantrik Adhikar Suraksha Samiti, a constituent of the All India Federation of Organisations for Democratic Rights which held a national Convention in Baliapal. At That time in India such projects had the blessings of the Soviet Union in their bid for world wide hegemony. The Pro-Soviet Indian Government complied with the wishes of the then U.S.S.R

5 West Bengal

This State in recent years has witnessed a bout of great state repression by the Left Front Government on the movements of the Workers and rural poor. The C.P.M attempted Reforms but only managed to replace the old landlords with a new breed of Rich peasants who denied the poor peasantry land. Thousands of workers have been retrenched in the Industries while in the villages the landless and poor peasants have become poorer under the yoke of landlords patronized by Communist Party of India Marxist Gangs. The C.P.M. party has collaborated with big Industrialists and multi nationals and democratic workers organizations have been brutally attacked. The Centre of Trade Union of India, the party trade Union wing has brutally suppressed the movements of workers in forming democratic Unions. Peasant organization leaders have been tortured, particularly in Debrah, Silguri and Howrah districts and arrested in the name of curbing ´Naxalite terror´.

This State has a history of revolutionary movement right from the Colonial Period, like the Tebhaga Peasants Struggle. The birth of the Indian student Revolutionary Movement took place in West Bengal. In West Bengal The Naxalbari Armed Peasant Struggle wrote a new Chapter in revolutionary history. After a protracted joint movement of peasants and Tea Garden workers in Naxalbari village a major uprising occurred on May 23rd 1967 like a storm occurring. Just after the 1967 General Elections, the sharecroppers of Naxalbari gave heroic resistance to the Jotedars Various area conferences were staged procuring seizure of Jotedars land.60Incidents of Land Occupation and Forcible harvesting were reported in 274 square miles under Naxalbari,Kharibari and Phansidewa police Thanas. On May 7th 1967 a sub-divisional joint conference of Workers and Peasants gave an official call for the confiscation of the Jotedars land and establishment of the armed power of the Workers and peasants. Later the movement degenerated into one of armed Squad Actions isolated from the People´s movements .The State ruthlessly repressed the Movements. Thousands of Activists were killed in false Encounters or jailed. Villages were razed to the ground. In the Early 1970´s heroic Struggles took place for Democratic Rights by the Democratic Lawyers Association. They fought with undaunting courage against deaths due to political torture, illegal detention of democratic Activists, False Encounter Killings, Jail Massacres Etc. In the post Naxalbari Period in West Bengal significant struggles have been led on the Agrarian and workers front. In the Villages peasant Association resisted the wrath of the Landlords and Rich Peasants patronized by the Ruling C.P.M.Govt. Tribal leader Gunadhar Murmu of the Nagi Reddy Group led a significant movement in Debra District. Several peasant activists belonging to the Marxist Leninist Trend fell victim to the Police attacks or C.P.M gangs and were martyred. In the trade Union movement the most heroic Struggle has been that of the Kanoria Jute Mill workers. Here the Mill Owner Pasaria locked out the Jute Mill denying the workers the Provident Fund and Minumum Wages. The Workers had earlier protested for their demands but the Mill Owner suppressed them. The Workers protested at the Courts. Then the Workers heroically ran the mill themselves despite the police attacking the Struggle went into gigantic proportions with villagers from neighbouring areas offering it support as well as other factories. Self-Production was carried .The workers prepared their own food and became Self Sufficient. Heroic protests were also held in other Industries against Closures. A front was formed in West Bengal to co-ordinate all the Workers movements which would link all the workers Struggles in various Industries together. This helped workers raise joint protests and bring about Unity in there day to day issues. Another significant feature in the movement in West Bengal has been protesting the fascistic policies of the West Bengal C.P.M Govt attacking the Communist Revolutionary Sections. Revolutionaries and Democrats of Various trends came together and unitedly opposed the repression. A huge rally also took place opposing the Laxman Pur Bathe Massacre of Harijans by the Ranbir Sena in Bihar. 10,000 People collectively protested and this was one of Bengal´s most significant protests. Another Protest was against India´ missile blasts in Pokhran. In the Early 1990´s a significant struggle was jointly conducted by Revolutionary Groups of Various trends against Bus Fare Hikes and for democratic Rights which later Fizzled out.

6 Maharashtra

There has been repression on all sections of people. In the rural areas the conditions are predominantly semi –feudal. The most significant repression on the democratic Front was during the 1992-1993 Babri Masjid Communal Riots. It is of political significance that it was Rajiv Gandhi who unlocked the doors of the Babri Masjid in 1986. (The scene of the worst communal riots after the demolition by the Vishwa Hindu Parishad in 1993) In Allahabad a high court Judge was forced to give a verdict giving permission for the doors to be unlocked. Rajiv´s Congress to win the Hindu votes unlocked the gates propagating …‘Ram Rajya´. This exposed how hypocritical the Congress Govt. was that claimed to be secular. The Congress to win elections used thousands of Ramshilas in villages.(Statues of Hindu God Ram) Rajiv´s Congress made no attempt to curb or refute the Hindu fanatic Vishwa Hindu Parishad propagating a Hindu State and the building of a temple on the Babri Masjid site. (The V.H.P. claimed that Ayodhaya was Ram´s birthplace 5000 years before. There is lack of historical evidence to prove this.)

In December 6th 1992 with the collusion of the Congress forces the Vishwa Hindu Parishad destroyed the Babri Masjid and for some weeks the nation experienced the most barbaric communal fury since Partition. The Congress could simply not prevent the V.H.P from carrying out the demolition .During the post demolition period during the bomb blasts perpetrated by fundamentalists and the subsequent massacre of Innocent Muslims The Congress mainly stood like a spectator taking no initiative in giving democratic Resistance. This was ample proof of the communal Hindu nature of the Congress which hypocritically championed itself as secular. In Mumbai´s Slums hundreds of Innocent Muslims were burnt alive.

There have been various instances of black laws being used against the worker struggles like Terrorist and Disruptive Area Act Etc. Several cases have emerged of Trade Union Activists being beaten or tortured. In Rural Towns like Nagpur, Chandrapur and Ahmednagar thousands of workers have been arrested when Struggling. In recent years the globalization policies have entangled the workers struggles like an Octopus catching it´s prey. Workers have been retrenched. All the textile mills were closed down and lakhs of workers were retrenched.

Although in Maharashtra ,a significant revolutionary movement has not been built the seeds are being sown to build it up. On the democratic Front several protests were led by Marxist Leninist Mass Organisations jointly like the Vidhyarti Praghati Sanghatana, Naujavan Bharat Sabha, A.I.F.T.U, I.F.T.U, C.P.I.M.L Red Flag etc on issues of communalism, Black Laws, U.S ATTACK ON Iraq, killing of Activists in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar in the name of encounters, attacks on minorities like Christian massacre in Orissa of Christian people),Repression on the Kashmiri People Etc. The Lok Shahi Hakk Sanghatana brought out several reports with the Committee for Protection of Democratic Rights. It´s (Lok Shahi Hakk Sanghatana´s) significant reports are those on the true cause of the Slums(brought out in 1978 where the relationship between the rights of the slum dwellers movement to the Working class Rights was explained) ,on repression on the Kashtakari Sanghatna (1983), a tribal organization in Dahanu by Communist Party Marxist Thugs, a report on the 1984 Bhiwandi Riots in Cheetah Camp, (Innocent Muslims were assaulted by Shiv Sena Forces) Report on the riots caused by the Aftermath of the 1992 Babri Masjid demolitions in 1992-1993,accidents of Workers of the Otis Elevators, (1995 and 2000) incidents of communal rioting in Malegaion region of Mumbai,(2001)repression on Contract Workers at Mumbai Airport, (1990) Report on the cause of Railway Accidents(1995). Significant work of the LokShahi Hakk Sanghatana has been done in Opposing State Repression in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar, protesting against the repression on the 1982 Mill Workers Strike and the 1990´s closures of mills, campaigning against the building of a missile base in Baliapal as well as the Pokhran Bomb blasts, campaigning against the Vishwa Hindu Parishad sponsored Communalism through postering, pamphleting public meetings. The Significance of the work was that it was implemented in the Chawl (Workers flats)areas of the Working Class and not restricted to intellectual bases. During the 1992-1993 Babri Masjid Riots the Sanghatana did significant work in enhancing self defence committees to prevent riots. The role of the Working Class in combating communalism was highlighted. The Workers played an exemplary role in self-defence against Communal Forces during the 1992-93 riots. In 1982 the Mill Workers led a heroic Strike led by Datta Samant. It was one of the best organized movements in India´s Trade Union Movement. In 1991 after the globalisation and acceptance of the International Monetary Fund, the Mumbai mills were closed. In Byculla a heroic Struggle took place in the mill where retrenched workers occupied the Mill raising a black Flag. Later under the leadership of the Girni Sangharsh Samiti the Mill workers staged death defying protests at the Khatau Mills against retrenchment, for minumun Wages Etc. However the Compromising leadership which took the revolutionary democratic Movements to legalism and revisionism helped the Mill workers Movement die off. In 1995 a significant United Struggle was organized by the Airport Workers like the Sweepers, Trolley Retreivers etc. For some years there was an organized Struggle of the Airport Workers and many workers won permanency. In the 1980´s a significant movement also took place of Kamani Tubes Workers which ultimately diffused due to legalistic trends of the Union leading the Struggle. However revisionism and legalism diffused the movement. In the Student and Youth front a heroic Struggle was waged in Mumbai University in 1978where the Students held the University to Ransom. The Vidhyarti Praghati Sanghtana led this. Student Front PRAVIS, also led significant student struggles against Fee Hikes in Nagpur and in Mumbai and Thane protested against Donations Etc. However In the mid-80´s the most significant student organization was the Vidhyarti Yuva Jaguti Sanghatana which led campaigns for Admission in colleges and for Facilities for Students. It played the greatest role on concentrating on the student Struggles and not diverting the movement into other areas. Their revolutionary democratic perspective was noteworthy. On the tribal Front in the earlier 1980´s of historical significance was the formation of the Organisation Kashtakari Sanghatana. It led a mass based movement of Adivasis and was on several Occasions ruthlessly attacked by Activists of the Communist Party of India Marxist. In village hamlets the organization created pockets of resistance against landlords. In recent years of revolutionary Democratic Significance has been the emergence of the Jagrut Kamgar Manch, (Workers Consciousness Centre)a revolutionary Democratic Front for the Workers. It has done campaigns in basti (poor people´s slum houses) areas and a poster campaign opposing the massacre of peasants in Laxmanpur Bathe and Shankarbigha villages by Ranbir Sena Landlords in Bihar. It has initiated campaigns amongst the working class on exposing the missile tests in Pokhran in 1998,opposing the Vishwa Hindu Parishad led Hindutva Movement and explaining the connection between the Indian Governments Economic policies and the misery and impoverishment of the working class.(How globalisation has destroyed the Woking class Rights through mass retrenchments and de-unionisation)Efforts have been made by the Manch to co-ordinate movements of Workers. During the recent Iraq war the Manch organized a protest poster campaign in trains and railway Stations and leafleting in working class areas. Activists explained the nature of the American Attacks as an attack on the World´s People and how the United States to save it´s economy launched the war. (The value of the dollar had greatly de-valued and the United States wanted to capture the Oil market)

7 Other States

Other significant Reports in the movement are from Kasmir, Assam, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In Kashmir the people have heroically struggled against the fascistic repression of the India Government in suppressing their right to self-determination. Heroic Resistance has been given against the Army. A reign of terror was started on the Jammu and Kasmir National liberation Front activists and sympathizers. Many Kashmiri women and Children were victims of torture. Historically the Kashmiri people had the right to their own self determination ass Nehru had signed a plebiscite in 1947 with Sheikh Abdullah promising independent autonomy to the Kashmiri people and that the Indian Army occupied Kashmir only to protect it from foreign North Western Pathan Invaders. However Nehru´s Govt broke the declaration of the Plebiscite and led by Vallabhai Patel sent the Indian Army to Invade Kashmir.

However the movement is still under the influence of the Communal Forces and not extricated itself from the grip of Imperialism. Or collaborated with Ruling Class Elements. In Kerala huge protests took place against the killing of revolutionary martyr Varghese in the 70´s .Although there were several democratic Protests led by the C.P.I.M.L Red Flag against Bus fare hikes repression on democratic movements etc a predominantly revisionist trend has enveloped the movement there. In Uttar Pradesh significant work was done during the 1993 Babri Masjid demolition. Several anti riot self –defence committees were formed opposing both Hindu and Muslim Communal Forces. In Kanpur in a cloth Mill a major Struggle was led by the Kapda Mazdoor Workers (Cloth Mill)Union for permanency. In 1996 a major Struggle Started after the retrenchment of thousands of workers. After a long protracted Struggle the Workers won their right to permanency. In Madhya Pradesh the most significant trade Union victory was led in recent times by Shankar Guha Niyugi through the Chattisharh Mukti Shramik Sangh. Niyugi organized the Union in the mines where miners were all enslaved by the Contract System and denied minimum wages .The miners also died in accident. Through protracted Struggles Niyugi defied the tyrant capitalists and politician. In September 1991 after winning the Workers rights to permanency, for minimum wages up to Rs 80 a day he was murdered by B.J.P. goons. The C.M.S.S. also set up a free school and hospital for Workers.

There have been several other democratic Struggles but I could not include all here In States like Karnataka ,Tamil Nadu,Assam,Himachal Pradesh there have been several Struggles.

8 Democratic Rights Movement

There has also been an absence of a strong struggle based Democratic Rights Movement protecting the democratic Revolutionary Movement nationwide. The All India Federation of Organisations for Democratic Rights was formed in Guntur in 1982 (Compising of Democratic Rights Organisations from Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Orissa, Rajasthan and Maharashtra) to build a democratic Rights Movement with the right Struggle being the fundamental right. 2 All India Level Sammelans (Gatherings) in Udaipur (Rajasthan)and Faridkot (in Punjab) were held. The Federation has not made a significant impact despite bringing out historic Democratic Rights Reports. Report on the building of a missile base in Baliapal in Orrisa, Report on the massacre of Christians by Bajrang Dal Goons in Orrisa, report on the Punjab Problem During the Khalistani Movement, Report on Drought nationwide Etc. Initially in Andhra Pradesh and Punjab a significant Impact was made by Democratic Rights Organisations of the correct trend. In this light the A.F.D.R. formed in Punjab 1977 took out several factfinding reports in the Khalistani period which not only exposed the ruling Class Parties and the Communal Fascists but also the nexus between the Landlord Classes and the Reactionary religious movements. The Association gave solidarity to struggling organizations like the Front Against Repression and Communalism, the Kirti Kisan Union and on several occasions joined their anti-repression rallies. In Andhra Pradesh the O.P.D.R did lot of propaganda against the landlord repression on the poor peasantry and gave solidarity to the struggling Peasant organizations. It brought out the Historic Srikakulam Encounters report which brought out the facts relating to the attacks of the State Govt. On the Srikakulam Girijan Movement. The Organisation also did relief work in villages where drought and floods took place and explained the connection between the pro-landlord State policies with these so called calamities. Mass postering took place against the False encounters of Revolutionary Activists by the State in 1985.Several campaigns were taken up against Police Torture and Rape. Later these organization however failed to capitalize on what they had built and in these 2 Important states the Organisations are virtually defunct or Inactive. Important work in the Democratic Rights Movement was also done by Lokshahi Hakk Sanghatana in Maharashtra, the Ganantrik Adhikar Suraksha Samiti (G.A.S.S.) in Orissa and the Jan Adhikar Suraksha Samiti in Rajasthan (J.A.S.S.).

9 Conclusion

In India in the revolutionary Movement the Maoist trend is predominant particularly in the rural areas but not very active in the urban Cities. Che Guevarist or Trotskyite ideology has hardly had any influence in People´s Movements. In the Maoist camp some groups are resorting to electoral functioning and have capitulated to Revisionism. Other Groups either are resorting to Armed Struggle or building up revolutionary Movements. To me Revolutionary Maoism is still the most correct ideology in Preference to Trotskyism or Che Guevarism. India is a semi-colonial and semi-feudal State which needs a New Democratic Revolution as against a Socialist one (The production relations are not fully developed) True India has problems of Communalism and Casteism unlike China and the Indian conditions have their Unique nature but still the country side(Rural Areas) is the predominant area of revolutionary struggle with the peasants (As shown in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh) being the main force of the Revolution. I feel Mao´s policy of encircling the cities from the Countryside and protracted People´s war with Agrarian revolutionary movement being the principal form of struggle is still applicable to India. The Principal Contradiction is that between feudalism and the Indian People. The Revisionist Trotskyite thesis in today´s era propagates supporting candidates of Revisionist parties like the Communist Party of India or the Communist Party of India Marxist. In contrast to this Che Guevera´s Foco theory concentrates on guerrilla Armed actions and denies the role of the Revolutionary Party as the Vanguard. Although Cuba successfully made a revolution the failure of Che´s Foco theory in other parts of Latin America is a lesson for us. In my opinion historically and today the trend which upholds the mass revolutionary line in the Maoist Camp has it´s genesis in the line advocated by the Marxist Leninist leader Tarimala Nagi Reddy. This line opposes resorting to Electoral politics as well as the politics of …‘Individual Annihilation of the Class Enemy´. This trend staunchly opposes carrying out revolutionary armed Struggle at this stage and is predominant in the Revolutionary movements of the Malkangiri Adivasi Sangh in Orissa and the Lok Morcha in Punjab. (Also earlier in the Front against Repression and Communalism and the Punjab Students Union.) The main demarcation of this trend is maintaining the correct relationship between the revolutionary Organisation and the Party and democratic Functioning within the mass organizations. No doubt Revolutionary groups supporting the Charu Mazumdar line have the strongest mass base and have led a great revolutionary peasant movement in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh but their line has been vitiated with left Adventurist line. (The Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parisahad in Bihar and the Rytu Collie Sangham in Andhra Pradesh) Although thousands of their armed squad members have laid down their lives their armed actions have not sufficiently integrated or been based on the People´s Movements. In Contrast groups like the C.P.I.M.L Liberation Group ,C.P.I.M.L Janashakti Group (formally Chandra Pulla Reddy Group) or C.P.I.M.L Red Flag have virtually resorted to parliamentary revisionist politics and their mass organizations to legalism. (No doubt in the 1970´s and 1980´s the Chandra Pulla Reddy group played a major role in the Revolutionary Movement particularly in Andhra Pradesh. So did the Liberation group in the 1980´s in Bihar which had built a huge peasant movement through the Indian People´s Front.) However in the democratic Revolutionary camp all the points I have raised on polemical points or favoured is in the ultimate analysis a debatable point.

The Indian Revolutionary Democratic movement is like a torch being lit which will radiate light everywhere. Long Live the Revolutionary Struggles of the Indian People!

By Harsh Thakor

written with Reference to Journals

1. In Defence of Democratic Rights

2. Mukti Marg (from Bihar)

3. Bleeding Punjab-Report to the Nation (by Amolak Singh and Jaspal Jassi)

4. Naxalite Movement in Punjab by Paramjit Judge

5. Surkh Rekha and Inquilabu Jantak Leh (2 Punjabi Revolutionary Journals)

6. History of Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union.

7. The Comrade(Communist Revolutionary Journal)

8. Kalam-organ of All India Revolutionary Students Federation

And Revolutionary Activists of different Trends.


1. Adivasis mean Tribals

2. Lok Morcha means People´s Front (Punjab)

3. Semi feudal refers to Capitalist relations not being sufficiently built up and feudal production as the predominant mode.

4. Naujavan means youth-Naujavan BHARAT Sabha means Youth Front (Bihar)

5. Panchayat means sub-district or part of a district. – Sangh, Sangham or Sabha means body or Association. Rytu means peasant or Labourer. (Referring to Rytu Coolie Sangham)

6. Girijans are a tribal sect of Andhra Pradesh

7. Sanghtana means Organisation

8. Amritsar Natak Kala Kendra means Amritsar street Play Centre.

9. Girni Kamgar Sangharsh Samiti means Mill Workers struggle Front

10. Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti meams landless labourers struggle Committee.

11. Ludhiana, Amritsar, Bhatinda, Faridkot, Jalandhar are districts of Punjab. The chief base of the Punjab Students Union was in Ludhiana. The chief areas of the Front against Repression and Communalism was Bhatinda and Faridkot which are in South Punjab.

12. Jehanabad was the major region of revolutionary Peasant movement. So was Palamau which is now part of Jharkand. Other significant parts of Bihar were Gaya District and Bhagalpur.

13. Kisan means peasant while Mazdoor means worker.

14. Shaheed Means Martyr.

15. Babri Masjid was the Mosque built in Ayodhya which the Vishwa Hindu Parishad claims was originally Ram´s Birthplace (Hindu God) Padamgiri is a major Struggle area and is a Panchayat. It is a part of Malkangiri District.

16. Dehati Mazdoor means Agricultural Labourer. Bharatiya Kisan Union means Al India Peasant Union. Ekta means Unity.

17. Telangana and Srikakulam are districts in Andhra Pradesh

18. C.PI.M.L means Communist Party of India Marxist Leninist which had it`s Origin in the Indian Maoist Leader Charu Mazumdar`s leadership. Charu, who led the Naxalbari Struggle formed the C.P.I.M.L in 1969 and advocated the line of Individual Annihilation of the Class Enemy and the disbandment of mass organisations. Tarimala Nagi Reddy, also a Maoist opposed his line claiming that mass struggles and mass organisations were indispensable. Chandra Pulla Reddy had Similar Views.

See by the same author:
Democratic Rights in India