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Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse Tung Thought

1. March 2004

A theoretical Analysis by Harsh Thakor

The website of the Anti-imperialist Camp should also serve as a platform of discussion. Therefore readers are invited to expose their views. Therefore those do not necessarily express the opinion of the editorial board.

The Anti-imperialist Camp´s editorial board”

It has been termed by many pundits that Marxism has met it´s doom. True various revolutionary movements have been defeated and Capitalism has won in the present phase but it must be remembered how long it took capitalism to emerge victorious. In the earlier parts of the last Century the Capitalist world order was given a death blow by the Russian and Chinese Revolutions. The Cuban revolution followed. However the loss of Socialist China was a great blow to the International Communist Movement.
In the last Century various trends emerged within the revolutionary camp. Some Critiques argued f that Trotskyism was the correct Marxist formulation, others favoured Stalinism, later there were followers of the New Left Trend .
Today it has become a fashion or a tendency amongst Left Intellectuals to reject the Maoist movements. They advocate that the party need not lead the Armed Struggles. Others still propagate the Trotskyite theory of Permanent revolution. There are other s who support Che´s Foco theory. Several ideologues in the camp are die-hard supporters of Stalinism and refuse to recognize Mao´ contribution.
Trotskyism however well meaning it sounds is disguised Marxism. It is still claiming to be a rival to Mao´s thought in being the correct Marxism Leninism of the era. True Trotsky was a brilliant thinker and led the Red Army but it must be remembered that he was a Menshevik. Stalin played a much greater role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Trotsky never supported Lenin´s thesis of the revolutionary proletarian party. Lenin developed the Bolshevik paper Iskra which Trotsky at that time opposed. After the revolution Trotsky called for factions within the proletarian party. True democratic Centralism has to exist but a strong single unified party was the need of the hour and is a necessity in a revolutionary movement otherwise the proletarian party will capitulate. Struggling factions would destroy and lead to bourgeois factions. Trotsky also claimed that power was not handed over to the Democratic Soviets and that it rested in the hands of the Bolshevik guard. True thee may have been difficulties in implementing democratic functioning in the party and the mass organizations controlling the day to day lives of the people but in revolutions mistakes are made. Without the disciplined Bolshevik Party maintaining the correct relationship with the open mass organization sand the secret party where could the revolution be led and the base laid down for forming people´s organs of revolutionary power? If in a Socialist State a multi party system existed then ruling class forces would be part and parcel of the society and Socialist Functioning would cease. Trotskyite factions would no doubt have led to the bourgeois parliamentary system as there was no unified democratic Centralist unified party organization. Trotsky went on to contradict himself He advocated militarisation of Trade Unions. This was imposing politics on the workers .The Trade Union is a democratic organization into which political elements are introduced. Only the party organization can militarize the mass fronts and the revolutionary trade Union acts as a belt in capturing or maintaining revolutionary power. If the trade Union became a military wing how could they lead the day-to-day class struggles of the working people? In 1921 Trotsky called for collectivization .At that time although the state of the Working class Instead there was need for liberal reforms as the Civil war had ruined the Economy and the peasants were not ready for collectivization. Trotsky opposed Lenin´s New Economic Policy. The level of production and consciousness of the peasants hardly had the consciousness and they need the incentive of the private plot. At the International level Trotsky committed blunders .He condemned Lenin´s signing the historic Brest- Litovsk treaty with Germany in 1918 as anti- Russian failing to understand the tactical significance.Lenin opposed Russian Chauvinism and advocated peace bread and land. Thus he withdrew the Army from the German border and signed the pact with Germany.. Trotsky also opposed the anti colonial revolutionary movements, which Lenin supported in 1920 after his colonial thesis in the 3rd International. Lenin said that Socialist revolutions could not take place in Semi colonies or colonies but only in capitalist countries and called for democratic revolutions in the third world countries .Trotsky stated that only after the revolutions in the Advanced developed Countries could revolutions take place in the 3rd world. This was capitulationism. After being expelled in 1926 Trotsky condemned Stalin´s collectivization in 1928.True gross errors were made but the Soviet Union had Achievements unprecedented in the history of mankind surpassing all the Capitalist Countries. In Education and medicine Russia gave facilities to the working class unheard of in Europe. In Steel production the U.S.S.R was the leading country. The Workers of Russia all had housing and democratic structures to represent their day-to-day aspirations. Trotsky accused Stalin of destroying the Socialist State. True in the purges several innocent party members lost their lives as democratic Centralism was violated. Stalin neglected the superstructure and paid attention only to the base. He failed to raise democratic revolutionary Consciousness from below and failed to democratize the party from below. Mass movements were not called for and the secret police often imposed terror in trying to impose policies. Agriculture was neglected. Stalin also exaggerated his own personality Cult.However Stalin played a major role in Soviet Union winning the World War. He thus saved the first Socialist State. True Stalin erred in not giving adequate support to the Communist parties and imposing a sectarian policy on the Chinese Revolution. He expelled Mao from the Comintern in 1928 when Mao advocated peasant guerilla Insurrection in opposition to urban insurrection and in the 1940´ s had faith only in Chiang Kai Shek. However but for the support of Socialist Russia China …‘s revolution could not have won. Stalin´s pact with Ribontrov(Ribontrov-Molotov Pact) in 1939 was of historical tactical Significance to the International Socialist Movement .His intention was to make the counter revolutionary European powers retreat and was not to be friendly with Hitler. It must be said that Stalin was unable to save the Comintern but he had in 1935 taken the initiative in forming the anti fascist United Front against Franco in Spain. The Western countries made great efforts to de-stabilize Socialist Russia and often connived with Hitler in this. In the 4th International Trotsky called for the overthrow of the Stalin regime. This was counter revolutionary. On one hand he claimed U.SS.R was a state of the Working class and on the other hand he called for overthrowing it. This supported the Nazis indirectly. It is one thing struggling against Stalin´s wrong trends and another one overthrowing a Socialist Regime. It must be stated that Stalinism violated Leninism in many ways .Democratic Centralism was violated. Stalin particularly on East European Countries violated proletarian internationalism to a certain extent. Stalin bullied Titov in Yugoslavia.Stalin made serious errors on the Chinese Question. The major fault of Stalin was the seeds he laid for Kruschevite revisionism. Stalin ignored that class struggle continued within a Socialist Society Many innocent party members were killed. In the 1940´s the Trotskyite camp was split .One faction supported Russia´s War efforts, the other opposed it. The Trotskyites failed to recognize Socialist China, which U.S.SR under Stalin did. Here again Stalin scores over Trotsky. (Mao always said that but for the support of Stalin´s U.S S R., the Chinese Revolution would never have won.) A diehard anti-Stalinist Isaac Deutscher claimed that the U.S.SR had made the greatest contribution during the war. He also stated that Stalin could never be categorized as a fascist.E.H. Carr a famous historian never formally upheld Stalin but defended Soviet Russia´s policies in the Stalin years. He described the phenomenal production achievements and the unrelenting courage with which the first Socialist State withstood the dual threats posed the Western “Colonial democracies´ and the German and Spanish fascists. Carr defended U.S S R.´ signing the Ribbentrov -Molotov Pact. Trotskyite party functioning actually would help the bourgeoisie power grow within a party. Although true the Stalinist parties were unable to offer adequate support to the German Communist Party in the late 1920´s and early 1930´s a Trotskyite party would totally have been liquidated as it had no structure of a proletarian party. In the 1960´s the Trotskyites failed to support the anti American Pro-Vietnam movement. Claiming that peasant resistance in a third world country would not work the line opposed supporting the Vietnamese Vietcong against the Americans. Even non Marxist Anti Imperialist Forces and liberals supported the Vietcong! In Peru the defeat of Hugo Blanco is a testimony to the liquidationist line of Trotskyism. At first Hugo had great faith in Trotskyite thought but later he lost faith. A contradictory analysis took place between the International in Buenos Aires, known as the S.L.AT.O and comrades working in the mass movement .The former proposed no intention of supporting anything further than the seizure of land by the peasants and the formation of peasant militias to protect their gains. The local comrades operating out of Cuzco advocated guerilla warfare. Serious differences rose up in Lima between members of the political unit. The division was what was to be used, distributed, accounted, and kept .The other was the point of the confusion in the correct tactical line. A conflict arose between the political and military dictatorship. Hugo was helpless and left with the task of organizing political Unions.Earler the S.L.A.T.O ruined the possibilities of insurrection by playing with the lives of the militants.They sent lorry with arms and men directly to Cuzco.Organisers in Cuzco opposed this advising leaders to the valley of La Convencion rather than risk entering Cuzco.They were sure they would be searched. A police patrol detected the team and after a combat all the comrades were captured. The Trotskyite leaders deserted Hugo Blanco who continued organizing land seizures. Eventually the Peruvian state police captured Hogo. In India they have called for Uniting with the left Front parties which in West Bengal are letting loose a reign of terror! The most erroneous part of the Trotskyite thesis with regards to third world or semi-colonial countries was that of supporting the line of Socialist revolution rather than a democratic one. Such a line is incompatible with the relations of production.
The New left has been a significant trend in the post war years.They have valid points but they are theoretically unsound. They underplay the role of a revolutionary party in leading armed struggle. In the history of the last Century the failure of the existence of a strong Marxist Leninist Party has been a major obstacle in the success off mass revolutionary struggles worldwide. In Palestine and South Africa Armed Struggles were compromised or defeated.Patriotic Movements were diffused. In Latin America movements liquidated in Bolivia, Brazil Etc. True Che Guevara triumphed in Cuba with his foco theory but in other parts of Latin America the theory failed.
Mark Detroit a Marxist Writer Analysed “The Guevarist disregard for a serious analysis of the concrete conditions has gone hand-in-hand with a tendency to belittle the
need for revolutionary theory. In direct response to the well-
known statement of Lenin that “without a revolutionary theory
there can be no revolutionary movement”, Che argued that “one can
make a revolution if historical reality is interpreted correctly
and if the forces involved are utilized correctly, even without
knowing theory.”(5)

Such reasoning ignores that revolutionary theory is what allows
for a thorough analysis of reality. Marxist theory permits the
attentive observer of reality to make sense of their perceptions.
Thus, revolutionary theory must be based on the most all-sided
information about historical reality. It is no coincidence that
Guevarism downplays theory while basing its strategy and tactics
on the most shallow estimate of the social conditions.
But if Che didn`t think revolutionary theory was a necessity,
why did he portray himself as a Marxist? Che certainly did read
some Marxist works, but he did not accept Marxism as an integral
theory. Instead he picked up on certain features that he could
reconcile with his overall petty-bourgeois revolutionism. A clear
example of this is his statement that “the Cuban revolution takes
up Marx at the point where he put aside science to pick up his
revolutionary rifle.”(7) In this instance, Marxism is reduced to
the notion that armed struggle is good.
Che did not draw a fundamental distinction between Marxism and
revisionism. For him, even the likes of traitors to communism like
Khrushchov were Marxist, and he considered the Soviet revisionist
bloc to be socialist. It`s true that Che had some disagreement
with the Soviet revisionist leaders. For example, in the mid-60s
the Cuban leadership was developing guerrilla groups in other
Latin American countries which clashed with Khrushchov`s efforts
to reconcile with U.S. imperialism. Che also had some criticisms
over how aid was dispensed by the Soviet bloc although in general
he highly praised the Soviet revisionist aid. He also had
objections to certain features of Soviet economic planning, even
while holding that it was socialist. But these objections were not
based on anti-revisionism. Rather, certain features of Che`s
petty-bourgeois radicalism were in contradiction to some corrupt
revisionist views.
” Although Che talks about “socialism” being the immediate stage
of the revolution throughout Latin America, the content of this
“socialist” struggle is similar to the path he advocates for many
of the bourgeois regimes in Asia. Take the issue of Che`s
reasoning for calling the revolutions in Latin America
“socialist.” Here we cannot attempt to analyze what the actual
stage of revolution was in each Latin American country in the
1960s. But according to Che, the decisive issue was that the
Latin American bourgeois rulers were flunkies of U.S. imperialism.
No doubt the Latin American ruling classes were closely tied to
the U.S. capitalists. But the socialist character of the
revolution is not determined merely by the degree to which these
countries were tied to a big imperialist power. To define a
socialist revolution that way is to paint independent development
as sufficient for socialism. Indeed, we have seen above how Che
and the Cuban leadership preached that if the bourgeois regimes in
the developing countries stopped taking Western imperialist aid
(while taking Soviet social-imperialist aid) their societies would
evolve along socialist lines.”
Although Cuba made Socialist Strides it must be mentioned that Castro became Pro-Soviet and failed to support revolution around the Continent like Guevera.Cuba made great strides in Industry but also failed to implement a Socialist International line nor create mass movements within their own country.A significant part of the New Left was their importance to psychology like Herbert Marcus who tried to combine psycho –Analysis with Marxism. Jean Paul Sartre made valid Criticisms but ultimately failed to be a Marxist stating that the individual was more significant than the mode of production and irrespective of the production mode an individual can reshape his life. Che Guevara led a revolution but failed to understand the importance of mass protracted war.Nor did he understand the need of the revolutionary party.Che also failed to understand Soviet Social Imperialism and understand the Great debate. However Che laid emphasis on creating a new Socialist man and gave importance to spiritual values within man which no body else gave. His advocating moral incentives was a debatable issue. Nicaragua also made a revolution under Sandanista and no doubt introduced democratic reforms. However the revolution was incomplete as they did not destroy the power of the big bourgeoisie It also depended on Soviet Union, the erstwhile social Imperialist Superpower. The Cuban experience remember upheld a one stage Socialist Revolution, a united Front of 3 classes without the national bourgeoisie, no requirement of a communist Party and a negation of protracted Peoples War. Cuba was also dependent on the Soviet Union. No doubt Cuba made remarkable progress in abolishing literacy, introducing a health system that greatly helped the workers and poor peasants, nationalized agriculture that gave the working peasantry their land rights which were denied in the Batista regime. However the Cubans failed to revolutionize agriculture and Industry through initiating mass movements like Mao did in the 1960´s.A bureaucratic class was formed amongst the party members and cadre. At the International level Cuba sents arms to forces in Angloa which runs counter to International Socialism. In his lifetime Comrade Che was critical of Castro´s localized attitude as he failed to support revolutionary Struggles around Latin America
4a.Military and PolitiaclLine
Lastly we come to Mao Tse Tung Thought which leading Maoist groups term as Maoism, which is an incorrect formulation. To fully understand the working of Mao´s ideology one has to study the experience of not only the ongoing-armed Struggles in Peru, Philippines, Turkey Etc Maoist China but also the experience of pre and post revolutionary China. Mao Tse Tung Thought is a development of Marxism Leninism and cannot exist without it. Mao´s greatest achievements were developing the military theory of protracted Peoples War in semi-colonial countries. Mao was the first person to apply Leninism in the semi-colonial Asiatic Conditions. Mao´s incredible Achievement was to demonstrate that in such conditions the peasants were the main force and the country side the Principal Center. The way he retreated into the Chinkangshan mountains after the Shanghai massacre is a lesson for all revolutionary cadres. After the 1927 massacre he went on to lead the Chinese Communist Party in forming base areas like the famous Juichin Soviet in Kiangsi.40years later …‘ The thought of Chingkan mountain´ ;and the road of …‘Chingkan mountain´ were upheld as the correct revolutionary thought and path for peoples all over the world. There Mao Tse Tung developed the concept of countryside surrounding the cities. Mao also in his New Democratic thesis recognized the revolutionary character of the national bourgeoisie, which had to be won over in the movement. It is very Important to state that Mao never disbanded the theory of Leninism of developing the democratic Centralist Leninist Party. He always stressed that the party was the vanguard and the leader of the peoples mass organizations, principally the people´s Guerilla Army. The Red Army was a military organization and its central role could never substitute that of the revolutionary Party. The relationship mass organizations with the party are very similar to the relationship of the heart or the brain with various organs of the body.A body cannot fuction without the brain or the heart . The heart or the brain alone cannot keep the body alive Without other parts of the body like the liver ,Kidneys,stomach,neck,etc.The leg sand arms form the superstructure of a body. The need for forming people´s organizations of revolutionary power in a revolutionary movement is like connecting a horse with an axle to a cart. In the course of the Revolutionary movement the difference was of a very subtle importance. Mao showed the importance of studying the concrete conditions to the appropriate situation. He refuted the left sectarian Li Li San line propagated by the 14 Russian Bolsheviks, which advocated urban insurrection of the Soviet Type. Those comrades felt that the city workers and the urban area was the principal area of struggle. Mao led the historic 368,day, 6000 mile Long March, one of the greatest feats in mankind´s history with
Comrade Chu Teh.In 1935 at the Tsunyi Conference Mao´s line proved victorious and the Chinese Communist Party officially recognized his line to be correct. Mao later made a historic tactical alliance with Chiang Kai Shek in the8th route Army. Throughout the period of the red base areas, and even throughout the Long March the internal party struggle, between 2 policies, 2 lines of conduct took place. A continuous process of debate, study and practice was the chief method. Adopted by Mao. In 1942 Mao introduced his rectification campaign, which is of great revolutionary Significance. Here through inculcating political self –criticism the Chinese Communist Party exhibited it´s utmost humility and the merit of democratic Centralism. In 1945 Chiang´s Kuomintang again became antagonistic and Mao´s Red Army defeated them in the civil war between 1945-1949.On October 1st 1949 Mao had made history by leading the Chinese Revolution.. also opposed the Chinese Communist Party imposing it´s policies on the movements of other countries.
4bInternational Line of Mao Tse Tung Thought
It was Mao who led the historic Great Debate, which exposed the U.S.S.R as a revisionist county. Ultimately the Chinese recognized the U.S.S.SR as Social Imperialist after the Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.In the correct Chinese thesis it was explained that the Soviet Union had turned from a Socialist economy to a state capitalist economy. Under Khrushchev private agriculture was introduced, party members were allowed to own private property, party members as well as farms owned factories. Now Only semblances of socialist State existed as though the economy was sate controlled the Communist Party had formed a new class. Mao exposed Khrushchev´s revisionist thesis of Peaceful Transition to Socialism and the contradiction of the 2 Superpowers as the principal one at the International Level. He stressed that every Communist Party Worldwide should apply Marxism to there own conditions. Mao later Explained that Russia was trying to promote their hegemony and in effect no longer supported National liberation Struggles. They supported the Palestinian Liberation Organization ,African National Congress,U.N.I.T.Ain Angola or Cuba only to extend their influence as a hegemonic power. In India in 1976 Russia supported the Emergency. Russia was also a major arms supplier to the Regime ruling Peru in the 1980´s and early 90´s.True Russia supported the Faribundo national Liberation Front in El Salvador and also supported Nicaragua but this was to counter the American hegemony and to promote their own hegemonic expansion worldwide. In the Vietnam War Russia gave hardly any moral support to Ho Chi Minh. (The Vietminh Guerilla methods were a virtual replica of Maoist protracted Peoples War although Ho never formally upheld Mao)) Socilait China´s moral support played a major role in the Vietnamese Victory. In South Africa and Palestine true Soviet Union sided with the progressive forces but for the same reasons stated. The failure of The African National Congress and the Palestine liberation Organisation in pursuing armed Struggle was greatly as a result of revisionism. The Soviet Policy in the post 1956 Era of Arming certain Guerilla movements was Revisionist .Mao always stated it is wrong to support other countries armed Struggles supplying Arms.Socialist China gave moral support to both of these major movements. (1949-1976) China turning the capitalist road also had a bearing.In India the Soviet Expansionist policy had a bearing on India´s military policies .A huge missile base was being constructed in Baliapal in Orissa in 1986.Soviet Union never opposed Indian Expansionism in Sri Lanka and it´s attack on Bangladesh in 1971.Earlier in the 1970´s Soviet and East European tractors sold all over India laying the seeds for the big landlords to change their techniques of production. Soviet Experimental farms laid a foundation for the intensive cultivation programme of Western Imperialists. Soviet aid helped increase Western aid and the absorption of Finance capital.No major Latin American movement was supported by Russia. The public sector created by the Soviets helped the private sector grow fatter with the active participation of Western Capital. The same aid enhanced the growth of foreign capital in fertilizers, oil,and engineering industries. In the Indo Soviet trade agreement in 1970 agreed to import specific quantities of industrial goods, particularly those produced by 5the Russian aided projects .Number of Soviet Projects such as coal mining ,heavy engineering were producing less than their capacity, since the limited market of a semi colonial economy was not in a position to utilize it´s production. This helped Soviet Union carry out profitable trade in view of the cheap labour in India.The nationalization carried out by the pro-Soviet Indira Gandhi regime were not progressive and directly helped the monopoly capitalists. In 1969 the Life Insurance Corporation of India invested Rs.77.48 crores, amounting to 335 of it´s total investment, in only 10 big business houses,Tatas and Birla sharing the greatest amount. Russia could also keep tab on the sales of their production units. In 1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan .How could a Socialist State do this?Mao always stressed that both the superpowers had to be fought equally. Some Comrades accuse Mao of calling Russia the principal danger. This is a distortion of Mao´s teachings. China supported Comrade Ho and the Vietminh and gave great Moral support to the Naxalabari Movement in India plus the Pro-China Armed Struggles in Columbia. In 1971 he established relations with Nixon of the United States and was accused of being a revisionist by some comrades. This was rubbish, as Mao only wanted to recognize the American State to establish diplomatic relations. Mao supported the struggle of the Negroes in America. There are those who say that Mao supported Chile´s dictator Pinochet. Mao again only recognized the Chilean State and condemned the overthrow of Allende. The Chinese policy was that of International tactical co-existence to enhance credibility. They would recognize and establish relations with even dictatorial, fascistic states but support progressive or armed liberation movements within them. This was an international revolutionary tactical policy. True China had to survive at the International level and it had border rivalries with the Soviet Union. This affected the extent to which they could adequately support revolutionary Struggles and there was an internal trend within the party that the U.S. S. R was the greater danger and chief source of War. However Mao always fought against the Dengist 3 world theory, which considered the Second World Countries as allies in the revolutionary struggles of third world Countries.

Communist Parties.
4CPeriod of Socialist Transformation
In this period China was transformed into a Socialist Country. There were 2 phases. The First took place between 1949-1952, the second took place between 1952-1956 Land was re-distributed and huge public trials condemning landlords were staged. Landlords guilty of Crime were tried in public courts and if they did not plead to change were killed. The Chinese Party first gave the landlords an opportunity to work like the common peasantry.2 major anti-corruption campaigns took place. They were the 3 antis (1949-1952) and the 5 antis campaigns.(1952-1956)Industrialists of the national bourgeoisie were made managers as a compensation of the state nationalizing the Industry. One famous campaign in this period was the “Thought Reform Campaign” reported by a Western Psychologist Dr.Lifton. He stated the amazing psychological methods used by the Chinese in reforming people with reactionary thinking. In this period China made phenomena progress in Sports .Their athletes and swimmers won medals in the Olympics as no third world country before won. Never had such a big populace been given such extraordinary Sports Facilities. Workers Children could all swim, play sports and work out in Gymnasiums daily.

He opposed his ideology being converted into an Ism.)
4d The Great Leap Forward
In 1958 Mao led the “Great Leap Forward” in China where Chinese agriculture was communized. Although mistakes were made for the first time in history was such a democratic system of functioning built. Agricultural produce was divided equally and all incomes were divided equally within members of a commune. A new fair wage system was evaluated in accordance to the productive contribution of each member of the commune on the basis of work points and bourgeois equalities were virtually abolished. The Soviets in the late 1950´s gave no moral support and thus China had great difficulties. However they still could “Walk on 2 Legs” The communes would have common toilets, kitchens, washing places, schools, playgrounds, hospitals. Even poor peasants could obtain all essential commodities. like foodgrains ,clothesEtc.Mistakes took place in this period but it must be noted the revolutionary transformation of the old Agricultural system into revolutionary communes was almost the equivalent of creating a new civilization. China refused to copy the Stalinist model and believed that persuasion rather than force should be used. …‘Backyard Furnaces´ were created where factories were built just behind the communes to employ the commune members.Han Suyin stated in China in the year2001 “Derided as failures because of the initial mistakes and dislocations augmented by weather calamities, the communes have survived and flourished and proved themselves the best type of organization yet devised for the attainment of China´s goals, not only in the Agricultural sector, but also in the speedy socialization of the whole population.T he communes are indispensable to the nation wide strategy of self-defence by multiplying the centers of self sufficiency in the event of bombing attacks.
There were 2 tendencies in the Communist Party leadership One upheld revolutionary enthusiasm to achieve material transformation,t he other was to slow down .The first trend meant that communes could realize the pooling of labour power necessary in a labour intensive production. To engage in basic capital construction such as water conservancy works, terracing of hills , digging of canals and reservoirs, afforestation, soil improvement utilization of waste land Etc. Mao and the poor peasantry supported this. After the communes were initiated in 1958 in 6 months 26,000 communes were initiated. By 1962 they were divided into 74,000 communes. The feudal peasant was now converted into a scientific-minded, educated, literate, man, like a technical educated factory worker .The peasantry coming out of a gutter would now be innovators, inventors, experts, technicians, to create science, a art, literature, a new world.
4e.Socialist Education Movement
During the Socialist Education movement in 1964 a mass democracy process was unleashed, the first ever of its kind in a socialist country. The masses of the poor peasantry were resurrected in the organizations to check the bureaucratic excesses of the party leadership. The Peoples liberation army and the communes were cleansed in this manner .. Earlier in the Great Leap Forward nearly all colleges and factories ran small factories., made steel, raised pigs and grew new crops. Big Factories were running secondary and large local primary schools.(Peoples Daily)Students participated in Production.
4fGreat Proletarian Cultural Revolution
In 1966 Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural RevolutionMao developed the theory of “Continuous revolution Under the Dictatorship of the Proletariat”He opposed Revisionism and was the first to explain that there had to be revolutions within a Socialist State to prevent the bourgeoisie from Usurping power as what happened in the U.SS.R under Khrushchev and now in China. (After1978) Mao refuted the capitalist roaders like Teng Xiaoping and Liu ShaoChi who stated that it was not important whether the cat was red or white as long as he caught the mice. Deng and Liu wanted to re-introduce the private plot and wanted material incentives making Profit the main criteria as in Modern China.(Post1978)In 1966 Mao gave a call to the Red Guards(his supporters to bomb the headquarters)He advocated the Red Guards to attack all bourgeois elements of life in Arts,Agriculture,Industry and Science.Communist Party members taking the “Capitalist Road´were not physically attacked or killed.(In Contrast to the Stalinist Purges)They were subjected to psychological transformation where Mao´s Red book was quoted. Some of China´s greatest achievements took place in this period. Teams of red Guards armed with the red book of Mao marched into the villages. It was perhaps the biggest democratic revolutionary mass movement in the history of mankind The Chinese Socialist State made gigantic strides as no nation had ever done before. No third world Country gave there people such medical facilities, Education, housing, clothing .For the first time in the history of a third world country poor peasants and workers could all read and write. Factories were made just aside the Communes where the peasants resided. The army always represented the broad masses and ranks were abolished. Landlordism was abolished and the peasants had revolutionary organs of people´s power as no country before had. Through communes they shared all their produce and a most fair pricing and distribution system was introduced. The Tachai Commune was the best Example. In November1964 Mao launched the slogan, “In Agriculture learn from Tachai”The brigade in the worst physical conditions had just 7 gullies and the intermediate rigregs. Its members lived in scooped out caves. They also had no regular source of water and yields before 1955 were just 750kg.perhectare of millet and Sorghum. Through sheer labour the Tachai brigade solved its problems of land and water, creating farmland out of the rocky, steep slopes, by leveling, moving soil from one spot to the other and creating terraces, joining various small plots together, constructing a 4 mile canal to the village, building water storage facilities against prolonged drought and making dams which prevented flash floods. Similar things happened around China. Socialist Consciousness of Mao´s thought was what was applied as against the concept of the private plot. Hereis a report of a peasant comrade:We don not just admire the political ability,for politics and oproduction go together.The people of Tachai worked togetherunder terrible conditions.They had no modern farm equipment,they had no collective funds,they had a few plows,hoes ,picks,shovels,baskets-that´s all they had.Still they transformed their village intoa modern village.They scraped the mounbtain to replant it with trees,and now it´s fine green.They didn´t have enough grain but they now sell grain too the state.They didn´t have water,and they tamed and channeled the mountain torrents.They didn;y have enough fertilizers,and they used the mid of swamps.They didn´t have houses,and they built house,they didn´t have schools and they built them too.”
He went on to explain that in his own brigade before liberation he had 1000 huts of mud and earth.The land belonged to a single landlordand there was one rich peasant.We participated in the movement for co-operatives,and the movement for the founding of peoples communes.Politically we followed a correct course.We built 334 new little houses,we created an irrigation system,and where there was only one mechanical well before,now every house has one.Before there was just one bicycle in the village,now there are 134 bicycles and 82 radios.In this house cwe have 2 bicycles and 2 radios.
A woman in the Evergreen Commune explained how the old theory of work points was much criticized. She stated how long discussions used to take place about the points and who should get them. “After the Cultural Revolution we learned that if you cultivate the land for the revolution, following the example of Tachai,and not for points. We realised that earlier people paid little attention to the quality of the work. Piecework gave no regard to quality. Now to cultivate 10,000 mou of wheat it takes only one week because of the application of revolutionary ideology Earlier it took 2 weeks to achieve the task. The People´s liberation Army played a great role by explaining Mao´s Thought.A new pay system has been created.Large differences of pay have been abolished and the principle, “To each according to his work …‘has been better applied.The calculation is not based on a basic work day,which would have the effect of stimulating the peasants to work but the flaw of differentiating among them according to strength,their age,their technical level,the nmber of people in their families,,and would favour quantity more than quality.Now the calculation is based on the effective work day.In effect work points are given to the behaviour of each person.
Here are some Examples quoted from a book …‘Daily Life in Revolutionary China´ published in the late 1960´s by Italian Maoist Sympathizers- a classic Account of the Chinese Achievements. One worker explained that he was working in a dyeing and weaving workshop in Factory No2since he was 17 years old. His father had died from illness because he didn´t have proper medical care and his salary meant to support 5 people could hardly keep 2 people alive. They had to eat bean curd and potatoes and in the winter had only thin jackets. Workers had hernias and rheumatism and hid their illnesses for fear of being been laid off. However in the liberation period in 1949 the conditions of life were like ” going to heaven.”
Besides the Revolutionary Committee in the factory the workers representative committee played an instrumental role. It was an organ of red power elected by all the workers and in charge of the daily problems of the factory. It co-ordinated with the revolutionary committee and with the workers council rep[laced the trade Union. The party has a leading role, the Revolutionary Committee is responsible for mangement, and the workers council is in charge of the revolutionary reorganization of work and acts as a control from the base levels on the higher echelons. Piecework wages and incentive bonuses were abolished. The highest salary was 120 yuan,the lowest 50 yuan.The difference between the pay of an engineer and that of a skilled technician was 40 yuan.A struggle-criticism-transformation movement dealt with the salaries problem(Taken from Daily Life in Revolutionary China).
In revolutionary China peasants built their own houses through co-operative efforts. A peasant explained that before the liberation the peasants had no political power. They merely had a harvest of 450 pounds per mou and had to give 350 to the landlord. After liberation they could purchase a bicycle, a sewing machine and furniture. For the first time in their lives they could get clothes, ate what they wanted and sent their children to school. (Taken from Daily Life in Revolutionary China).
Barefoot doctors performed phenomenal feats. One doctor re-attached 2 fingers on a peasants hand-something unheard of in pre-revolutionary China swearing by Mao TseTung Thought. Similary poor peasant women had her leg replaced. A professor narrated his experiences of meeting the poor peasants and how it changed his life. The peasants re-educated the professor enabling him to transform his entire outlook. Working in the Countryside made the professor a different person. Despite being over 70 years of age the professor traveled climbing mountains to share the experiences of toiling people. He started how he leant Marxism Leninism from direct contact with peasants rather than books. One Comrade Lin told reporters where he went to the villages to learn from the poor peasants. He explained how their team stopped in a village where there was a woman who was considered incurable. The family was already preparing for the funeral. Applying Mao Tse Tung Thought he developed a form of medicine that cured the patient. The patient was suffering from chronic Arthritis. Another professor explained that only by being re-educated by the peasants and changing his ideology he cured 20 incurable patients.He elaborated by transforming his world outlook he developed his techniques and that the peasants had cured him of his …‘ ideological sickness.´ There was a child who had a tumour on his arm as large as the head of a foetus. The Doctors cut away the diseased part and re-attached the arm This could never have been done in Pre Revolutionary China. Doctors were able to remove a 100-pound tumour said to be incurable. An electric mower cut one peasant´s hand and his fingers fell to the ground. The new doctors looked for his fingers, found them and put them on ice. The fingers were re-attached! In the old society this could never have taken place. Another girl who once had a clubfoot was operated. Her tendons were lengthened and now she could carry a load of about 50 pounds on her shoulders.The peasant and the girl attributed their cures to Mao TseTung Thought.This in actual fact meant de-centralisation of medicine,which brought doctors to the most remote places, which made them test their skills. The doctors traveled through the mountains, border regions, islands Etc Revolutionary Committees ran hospitals and each ward had it´s own revolutionary committee. (Excerpted From Daily Life in Revolutionary China)
The revisionist line of Liu Shao Chi of being expert rather than red was refuted. The revolutionary Committees ensured the participation of the masses who would judge the adminstrationThe patients could set up groups to study Mao´s thought, in which patients and doctors study and work together. The revolutionary Committees collected the views and criticisms of patients.” All Doctors went through a profound.Students were sent to the villages and factories to study production experiences. They narrated experiences of how there lives changed. Scientists performed experiments and made discoveries, which they owed solely to Mao Thought.Eg Manufacturing Watches.Workers, were insured protection after accidents. There also had democratic committees, which redressed their grievances whereby they could make their own production decisions. Workers had their own reading rooms and political study classes. Mao suggested that a course on philosophy be set up, since the workers needed to study theory and apply it in practice. Workers were developing into stereo typed machines. Now the study of philosophy became possible for all the workers All factory groups had their own reading room. The primacy of politics over economics was stressed. particularly with regard to social factors. This study represented the first qualitative leap of the individual in the revolution of the superstructure. Philosophy enabled the masses to become actively politically involved. (Taken from Daily Life in Revolutionary China)In this regard an important development was the publication of books written by workers ,peasants and soldiers in the mid-70´s to criticise Lin Biao and Confucius.4 workers in the Peking Motor Vehicle Plant jointly wrote notes on duel States by Liu Tsung Yuan.7 Shanghai Workers jointly wrote …‘History of the Peasant Revolution in China´,after Studying Source Material on several hundred peasnt uprisingsIn 1974 the dockworkers at the Tahen Shipyard wrote a number of theoretical works such as , “A history of Chinese Philosophy”, “A Concise History of European Philosohy,”Manifestations and Characteristics of the present Economis Crisis in the Capitalist CountriesEtc.Oil Field workers wrote the historic “Battle Sons of Tsaching Oilfield ,´a collection of poems by Oilfield Workers.The most significant struggle bween the revisionist and the proletarian revolutionary line in China was carried out by the party committee of Chaoyang Agricultural College in Liaoning Province.A revolutionary programme was compiled with 10 specific points.
1.Strengthening Working Class leadership in place of bourgeois intellectuals.
2.moving colleges from the towns to the Countryside
3.Peasants were indoctrinated with Socialist Culture. The principle of (From the Communes back to the Communes was to be put in command as against “He who excels in learning can be an official.
4.Putting proletarian politics in command instead of promoting intellectuals..
5,introducing part work part study system instead of regularized courses.
6.Teaching research and scientific production were combined instead of having specialized education.
7 Now colleges would be closely linked with the 3 great revolutionary movements of class struggle for production and Scientific Achievements.
8Old Agricultural Colleges were for the elite ,the new ones would be for the broad masses and would reach the grassroots.
9Teachers would now be linked to the lives of workers and peasants.In the old Society the teachers were divorced from them..Now the Students would control the colleges.Worker-peasnt –soldier tems would control the Universities.
Education was combined with productive labour.Workshops,factories and fields became the learning places for Students. Students received lectures from the peasants.
Ranks were abolished in the Peoples Liberation Army. The Army had to participate in the production in factories and help the peasants in production. They were involved in digging the Countryside, transporting grain and all kinds of furniture on carts, leading Children in drills a school. All forms of hierarchy and paternalism were removed. A soldier recognized his commanding officer just like a revolutionary committee obeyed it´s leader. Inspite of that the Peoples Liberation Army was recognized as the most disciplined. The Army was indoctrinated with Mao´s thought and taught to support the liberation Struggles of the masses all over the world. The virtues of the Chinese Revolution were explained and nation chauvinism was totally opposed in the teachings. In the Cultural Revolution upheavals the Army always stood by the Revolutionary Committees Army controlled instances when Red Guard Group rivalry took place or civilians were attacked. Only when factional non –revolutionary tendencies take place did the Army intervene. (An Ultra –left trend took place caused by a certain Red Guard faction) Army in the world. Another feature of the Cultural Revolution was the emphasis on studying Marxist Philosophy. (Taken from Daily life in Revolutionary China)
In Education the examination system was banned.A process of Struggle-Criticismand transformation was carried out in Schools and Universities .A revolutionary 3 in 1 combination was formed with the activists among the students,teachers and workers.This line was first implemented in Tsinghua University.The task of Studying Englishwas connected with Social PracticeA class of 16 students divided itself into 4 groups and gone with it´s teacher to a nearby commune.For theexamination,each group reported their findings in English.One dealt with a typical family history,another with education in the brigade primary school,still another with the educayted youth who have settled down in the brigade, and the 4th with the movements to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius.3 members of the brigade had been invited to attend the examination,and students took turns in interpreting them.Others interpreted for non English Speaking members of the University leadership who attended as observers.For a physics Examination,the students were divided into groups and given a number of questions on Electricity.Then each group went to a different nearby factory to investigate it´s Electric Power set up and,in course of doing so.,to find the answers to all thequestions.Then they were examined not by the teachers,butby the factory electricians,who decided whether they knew their stuff well.(Taken from Broad Sheet,August 1975Vol.No.12)
Quoting a book “Daily Life in Revolutionary China´, “The Cultural Revolution sets in motion the inexhaustible participation of the masses, which accelerates and puts into concrete form the appearance of proletarian democracy of which the Chinese speak. How else are we to define the politicization of the masses, which I saw during the trip? The moment the masses no longer fear coercion from the state apparatus, proletarian democracy begins to establish itself. It is here on the level of consensus, that the mass line conceived by Mao more than 40 years ago undergoes it´s broadest development This unprecedented reliance on the masses might merely conceal a pedagogical and academic character were it not based on social practice, did not explode within the heart of the ideological apparatus.”
Charles Bettelhiem stated; “The constant reliance on the masses, seems to be the most valid contribution of the Chinese Revolution. MaoTse Tung´s dictatorship of the proletariat in actual fact is the …‘broadest democracy for the masses of the people. The Chinese Revolution reminds us that the dictatorship of the proletariat is nothing other than proletarian democracy, democracy for the broadest masses of the people.” Mao had said, “The essence of the revolution in the state bodies consists in securing the links of the masses.” Mao always defended the fact that a class does not become truly dominant unless it has made its own ideology the dominant one.
One of Mao´s most important points was, …‘Grasp the revolution and promote production “Mao always insisted tat the contradictions between the forces of production and the relations of production, and their contradictions with the superstructure will continue to exist in every human society as ling as production relations continue to exist. He also fought for revolutionary changes within the superstructure. In his essay …‘On contradiction´ Mao dealt with the question of the continuation of revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat. Mao dealt here with the ultimate goal of reducing the power of coercive and ideological apparatus of the state-until the state withered away. By carrying the revolution to the soul by the “Intervention of the masses in the Superstructure”.True there were red Guard depredations and clashes during the Cultural Revolution and a tendency to convert Mao Thought into a Koran. It resembled waving a book of Magic. However never in the history of mankind had such a broad based revolutionary political movement taken place. The predominant feature in this period was the formation of revolutionary committees. Three in one committees were formed consisting of the revolutionary Party Cadre, revolutionary representatives from the Army and representatives of the revolutionary masses and a continuous process of struggle, criticism-transformation was carried out. They had powerful Left Sectarian Tendencies. Intellectuals like Felix Greene, William Hinton, Jan Myrdal. Etc showed the great achievements of Revolutionary China. This refuted Trotskyite Intellectuals like Isaac Deutscher who stated that it was a period of “It´s effect on China´s spiritual and intellectual life is in probability going to be as devastating and lasting as Stalin´s witch hunt in the purges”. Felix Greene felt that the Chinese people exhibited democratic processes and forms of functioning far superior than the Western democracies. Hinton´s book Fanshen exhibited the democratic functioning of agricultural communes in Revolutionary China and so did Gunnar Myrdals “Revolution in China”. A great spiritual change was inculcated in people. For the first time doctors, writers and intellectuals and intellectuals understood the benefits as a person of serving the people above self-interest. Workers and the peasants for the first time understood their own revolutionary creative power in production processes. They meticulously studied Mao´ works and transformed various aspects of production through their own study in factories.
Maoist China went above Stalinist Russia as Mao wished to create an inner, spiritual change in man. Going above Stalin. Mao stressed on revolutionizing the superstructure and not just the base as Stalin did. The Red Guards did not physically attack the capitalist roaders but used the practice of moral persuasion or criticism . Han Suyin states in her book, …‘China in the year 2001´, ” If there is no change in thinking patterns and habits,there is no material change and progress, for spirit and matter are interlinked, spirit is moulded by contact with the material world and in turn influences the material world. The masses should liberate themselves mentally, but this they must do,nobody can do it for them, least of all by order or by command. No longer slaves but master of their destiny they must ask themselves: How can I be a master? This is by aggrandizing the scope of the soul, deepening the grasp of historical knowledge and thinking faculties. The worker and peasant now realize that within the grasp of power to decide his own motivation, his own spiritual advancement as well as his material progress, and that these two are inseparable.”There was another famous quote of a Chinese Soldier, “Give us a gun and a book as man´s spirit demands more than just material satisfaction.”
There was a phenomenal transformation in the lives of woman.Women who were earlier bound on their feet could now serve in the army ,teach in Universties and conduct political Study classes!Women who were earlier Slaves had democratic rights to redress through courts and had crà¨ches to take care of their children went to work.
4gReasons for defeat of Chinese Socialist State and Mao´s Errors
China surpassed Britain´s coal production.
Left Sectarianism of the Gang of 4 was perhaps the main cause of the defeat of Mao´s line and the victory of the Dengists after1976. Mao also gave little regard to the studies of human psychology and similar to Soviet Russia Freud´s works and bourgeois writers were abandoned. No doubt in the Hundred Flowers campaign Mao asked for criticisms from all intellectuals and Dr Lifton also reported how the Chinese introduced thought reform processes. However intellectual´s, writers, Artists, musicians and Sportsman and often writers were subjected to persecution of fanatical proportions. Olympic level Sportsman could no longer pursue their careers. There was also excessive indoctrination of children and youth with Mao´s thought. However technically correct Mao might have been to a considerable extent the creative and original abilities of young Children was marginally stifled.Although Mao always stressed on the spiritual change of man there were cases of indoctrination being carried too far.This limited the overall powers of the masses to reason. (Eg.A child student was removed from the class when he opposed becoming a red Guard) However it must be noted that lot of these sections made a far greater collective contribution to Society. Socialist China gave Sports facilities to its Citizens and only Soviet Union gave previously. Children and youth for the first time I the world were introduced to Revolutionary Democratic politics and the need to serve the people of the whole world which only Russia previously did. Mao Tse Tung Thought in all spheres of life helped all sections of the broad masses transform their lives..The gang of 4 representing Mao´s line often distorted his line. (William Hinton´s reports) Instead of mobilizing the broad masses and increasing the scope of the Revolutionary Committees launched individual attacks and slogans.Mao rebuked them.Their left sectarian policies led to the victory of the right. Instead of strengthening the powers and democratic processes of the revolutionary committees individual attacks took place. In the sphere of criticizing the Arts, education, production Etc left sectarian tendencies were predominant. Slogans were given not always compatible with the revolutionary masses. Lin Biao to promote himself made the Red Book a Bible and Mao a …‘God´ Lin Biao had also played a major role in the victory of the rightists. Lin, who tried to assassinate Mao ,and who was actually a capitalist roader ,for a long time projected the image of a Maoist revolutionary. A long campaign was launched to combat Lin Biao´s teachings. In 1969 Lin had propounded the line that it was the era of, …‘Collapse of Imperialism and all round victory of Proletarian Revolution”, instead of the correct line of, “Era of Imperialism and Proletarian Revolutions. There was a tendency to exaggerate China´s bearing on World Revolutions. It was widely propagated that China´s was literally the correct path and that other Third World Countries had only to imitate the Chinese Experience. Mao refuted this trend by repeatedly explaining that the Chinese Revolutionary path was a guideline and no other country should mechanically copy their path. This also demonstrates it is wrong to convert the Mao Tse Tung thought formulation to Maoism. In India Mao was called by Charu Mazumdar as India´s Chairman.Chou En lai in 1969 Explained that such thinking was wrong. Mao showing his utmost modesty, made immense efforts to struggle against the personality cult created around him It must be remembered that Mao told his own people not to make a God out of him and he was like any human being..Mao. No doubt one weakness in Socialist China was the cult built around Mao that went against collective Socialism.New left people state that the party should have dissolved itself as the Vanguard while Trotskyites state that parliamentary democratic Institutions or organs should have been introduced.True the mass line was defeated but the role of the proletarian party was Central in the victory of a Socialist Society in China.The New Left or Trotskyite thesis would have defeated Socialism completely.(Trotskyites believe that the Cultural Revolution was actually the road to the “Permanent Revolution”)
4iChina After Mao
Post-Mao China after 1978 reverted all Mao´s policies. Communes were dismantled and private plots were introduced. All the benefits and securities to workers were taken away. Party members grabbed privileges and lived like aristocrats. The new Chinese Government under Deng Xiaoping established trade relations with America and introduced free Trade Zones. Here workers toiled over 12 hours in sweat shops and denied basic wages. All broad democracy movements of the Cultural Revolution Period have been banned. Inflation again took place at a huge rate and all basics amenities that were available at such cheap rate in Mao´s era became unaffordable or most expensive. Party members amassed huge properties in the name of the Communist Party. Examinations we re-introduced and the emphasis was on being expert rather than red. Women are again victims of rape and male Chauvinism. Beauty Contests have been upheld in Today´s China. Today China is a state capitalist country in actual fact. There is huge unemployment and workers are even denied minimum wages in Industries “A class of poor peasants has again been created. Internationally today China´s Communist Party supports Revisionist Parties like the C.P.M in India (Which carries out fascistic attacks in West Bengal on revolution art and democratic Movements)The most vital issue for Study is why the Masses accepted the Hua Guofeng in 1976 after such a big revolution. Today there are big demonstrations in urban factory areas where Workers display Mao´s posters and raise the Cultural Revolution Slogans.

Can Mao thought still be relevant to the World today? My analysis is that Mao´s military and political formulation is still valid. True now China is revisionist and Mao´s s line has been defeated. In the major international movements of South Africa and the Middle East Mao Tse Tung thought failed to succeed but it must be remembered that it is not even 100 years that this ideology was founded failed to However amongst the Working Class there have been several pro-Mao Positions in recent years. Today it is wrong political understanding, which is an obstacle to the victory of Mao Thought Internationally the Chief Proponent is the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, which calls for the building of a New International at a premature stage. It is the equivalent of the flesh of a body not having bones to hold it. They fail to learn from the lessons of the 1943 Comintern, which was dissolved under Comrade Stalin. Comrade Mao refused to form such an international in the heydays of the Cultural Revolution. Only after a revolutionary line has been adequately developed in the communist parties of worldwide can such an organization be formed. A fraternal mutual exchange has to take place between the Communist Parties of the world and a sufficient liaison system developed. The Integral development of the proletarian revolutionary line in Communist parties world wide is a necessary perquisite. Otherwise an international organization would simply impose itself on other Communist Parties like the Soviet Comintern.It must be noted that China in it´s period of Peoples war had the backing of the Socialist Russia which no country´s revolutionary movement today had. Today Even China and Cuba are revisionist and thus it is a different era.In All the struggles of the early 1970´sSocialist China was a major factor.After 1978 when the Revisionists returned to power China seized to support Armed Struggles. In 1949After the Chinese Revolution the Chinese Communist Party termed their ideology as Marxism Leninism and the thought of Mao Tse Tung. They only called it Mao Tse Tung Thought in the Cultural Revolution Period. Although China was a leader of the World Revolution they termed their ideology as Mao Tse Tung Thought and not Maoism. The Peruvian Communist Party, Revolutionary Workers Party(U.S.A.)and other organizations of the Revolutionary Internationalist movements have gone to the extent of calling it Maoism which the Chinese party did not. In the era of Imperialism, which was formulated by Comrade Lenin, the Maoists have wrongly replaced the formulation . Today is the era of Leninism-the era of proletarian Revolution and Imperialism. Lenin wrote the colonial thesis in 1921 where he developed Marx´s capitalist thesis to the era of Imperialism. Mao´s ideology is a thesis and not an ism like Leninism or Marxism.The term Maoism denies a concrete stage of today´s era which is Leninism. Mao´s military line has to be applied in the concrete condition s of each semi-colonial country like in Asia, Latin America or Africa.
In Philippines the Communist Party of Phillipines is fighting a protracted Peoples war. The Communist Party of Philippines has written the most scientific Thesis on Revolutionary armed Struggle. On the practical plane they have lit red lamps in over the countryside and towns. They lead the New Peoples Army and the National Democratic Front. Through study of the mass line they made a valid self-criticism in the 1990.s through a rectification campaign and have formed revolutionary base areas in several parts. There are active mass organization of women, peasants, workers and Students. The study of Mao Thought has helped them develop a most methodical thesis. They have dialectically analyzed the formation of base areas and a military line in accordance to there revolutionary strength in relationship to the enemy. In the light of Mao´s teachings the Filipino people could understand their pre-colonial era, their colonial years of Spanish rule, their years under the yoke of American Imperialism and their years under the semi-colonial and semi –feudal rule.
The revolutionary movement of the 1968-1979 Period, the revolutionary movement of the 1980-1991 period and the 1992 onwards rectification campaign was all led by Mao Tse Tung Thought t enabled the New Peoples Army to be founded on March 29th 1969. In the 1968-1979 era a massive campaign was carried out against the Lav Revisionist line of open parliamentary form of Struggle as the main one. The Lava Revisionist group was condemned as well as a Sumolong Gangster Clique which was discrediting the name of armed revolutionary movement. Central Luzon was the chief area of revolutionary activity and armed activity was combined with peoples mass movements. Mass organizations of rural poor, rural workers and fisherman were formed. A Communist Party of Philipines Document States,( There faith in Mao´s thought is testified in their following analysis of the C.P.P. in this document) …‘A progressive organization Kabataang Makabayan was formed .This was the base for the mass revolutionary movements.( It encouraged the formation of new progressive unions and trade union federations such as KASAMA and PAKMAP and the transformation of reactionary unions into progressive ones. It built mass organizations among the urban poor and among the poor fishermen. It enlarged the KM chapters in urban poor communities as well as in colleges and high schools. It formed various types of organization among teachers, creative writers, artists, scientists and technologists, health workers, lawyers and other professionals. )The New Peoples army also extended it´s armed tactical offensive in the region of Tarlac.After a massive rectification campaign.In the 1980-191 phase a struggle took place aginst urban based insurrections .This trend was prominent in Mindanao Commission . It overrated the role of armed urban insurrections in opposition to the strategic line of encircling the cities from the countryside. In fact, third and fourth class municipalities are categorizable as ruralThis line exaggerated the urbanization and industrialization of the Philippines in general and Mindanao in particular, in effect wrongly praising the U.S.-Marcos regime for supposedly developing and industrializing the country. It also wrongly presupposed that the Party had neglected urban revolutionary work, notwithstanding the fact that the Party had consistently developed and led the urban-based legal democratic movement. It put forward the idea that urban insurrection, prepared by armed city partisans and by sweeping propaganda and ultimately accomplished by the spontaneous masses, was the highest form of political struggle and that the people`s army was a purely military force and was secondary to the armed urban insurrection. It also exaggerated the international work of the Party as a decisive factor for winning the revolution. The erroneous line of combining urban insurrectionism and military adventurism was aggressively carried out in Mindanao from 1982 to 1984. Sweeping contact and propaganda work was done in the urban areas, armed city partisan warfare was intensified and people`s strikes were carried out by busing in peasants or using NPA units to set up “checkpoints”. Solid mass organizing was neglected and underground cadres in the narrow and small provincial cities exposed themselves to the enemy. In the countryside, fifteen absolutely concentrated NPA companies were rapidly formed from 1983-85. InMinandao the revolutionary movements suffered grave setbacks.A right oppurtunist line also existed which advocated open legal struggles.The right opportunists went to the extent of banning the proletarian party and replacing it with an open front.Only a protracted 2 line ideological struggle defeated both the deviations.Mao´s methods of struggle were adopted for rectification. In the rectification Campaign after 1992 a revolutionary thesis was made which analysed the deviations and laid out the fiture course applying Mao Tse Tung Thought. A comparison between the period of 1968-77 and the subsequent period of 1978-91 shows that in the former period deviations, errors and shortcomings were promptly and thoroughly criticized and repudiated in the light of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought; while in the latter period the most serious deviations and errors arose, accumulated and hardened within central leading and staff organs without being promptly criticized and rectified, thus increasingly undermining and violating the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. Subjectivism and opportunism ran rampant within the Party as a result of the slackening of ideological vigilance and militancy along the proletarian revolutionary line. At the root of all the ideological, political and organizational deviations, errors and shortcomings within the Party was the diminution and in certain areas even disappearance of the study and conscious application of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. When the ideological line is not correctly and clearly defined and followed, then all kinds of deviations, errors and shortcomings can thrive. Preoccupation with practical work from day to day, without the guidance of theory leads to unhealthy currents, degeneration and grave losses. A comparison between the period of 1968-77 and the subsequent period of 1978-91 shows that in the former period deviations, errors and shortcomings were promptly and thoroughly criticized and repudiated in the light of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought; while in the latter period the most serious deviations and errors arose, accumulated and hardened within central leading and staff organs without being promptly criticized and rectified, thus increasingly undermining and violating the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. Subjectivism and opportunism ran rampant within the Party as a result of the slackening of ideological vigilance and militancy along the proletarian revolutionary line. At the root of all the ideological, political and organizational deviations, errors and shortcomings within the Party was the diminution and in certain areas even disappearance of the study and conscious application of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. When the ideological line is not correctly and clearly defined and followed, then all kinds of deviations, errors and shortcomings can thrive. Preoccupation with practical work from day to day, without the guidance of theory leads to unhealthy currents, degeneration and grave losses. …‘.
. ” Mao Tsetung Thought sets the demarcation line dividing the proletarian revolutionaries from the false pretenders to the title of revolutionaries in this period of great upheaval, great division and great reorganization of political forces. Mao Tsetung Thought now guides all proletarian revolutionary movements that are inflicting mortal blows on US imperialism, modern revisionism and all reaction. The continuing failures of old parties that are not guided by Mao Tsetung Thought only prove that without its guidance and faithful application the revolution cannot be won and consolidated. The experience of revisionist parties the world over provides more than sufficient proof. The history of our own Party is marked by failures on account of serious errors and weaknesses that need to be rectified now in accordance with Mao Tsetung Thought. As modern revisionism is being fostered and spread by the modern revisionist clique with its headquarters in the Soviet Union, all proletarian revolutionaries are impelled to express themselves and act in accordance with Mao Tsetung Thought which is the acme of Marxist-Leninism in this world era. Two steps forward are now being made with Mao Tsetung Thought. Under the direct leadership of Chairman Mao, the People`s Republic of China has become the central base of the world revolution. It is the center of gravity of the world`s countryside encircling the cities of the world.
In a Philippines that is not yet liberated from US imperialism and feudalism, revisionist currents are bound to develop as they have. Currents of opportunism, with the local petty bourgeoisie and bourgeoisie as their fountainhead, serve as the basis for the superimposition of modern revisionism from its world center in Moscow. If modern revisionism is not effectively combatted with correct theory and practice, then US imperialism, domestic feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism can persist in Philippine society. After the crushing defeat of the revolutionary movement in 1950 and for nearly a decade afterwards, the revolutionary road had been enveloped in darkness both by the power of U.S. imperialism and the local exploiting classes of big compradors and landlords and by a long chain of unrectified grave errors and shortcomings. Were it not for the adoption of Mao Zedong Thought as its theoretical guide, the Communist Party of the Philippines could not have been reestablished and the revolutionary movement of the Filipino proletariat and people could not have been resumed. Mao Zedong Thought served to illumine the road of armed revolution.After the crushing defeat of the revolutionary movement in 1950 and for nearly a decade afterwards, the revolutionary road had been enveloped in darkness both by the power of U.S. imperialism and the local exploiting classes of big compradors and landlords and by a long chain of unrectified grave errors and shortcomings. Were it not for the adoption of Mao Zedong Thought as its theoretical guide, the Communist Party of the Philippines could not have been reestablished and the revolutionary movement of the Filipino proletariat and people could not have been resumed. Mao Zedong Thought served to illumine the road of armed revolution. Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought is the most comprehensive and profound guide of the Filipino proletarian revolutionaries, the reestablished Communist Party of the Philippines and the Philippine revolution with regard to the analysis of Philippine history and society; the first great rectification movement from 1967 to 1969; the reestablishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines; the revolutionary struggle from 1968 to 1980; the revolutionary struggle from 1980 to 1991; the second great rectification movement from 1992 onward; the Philippine revolution in the new world situation; and the socialist and communist future of the Filipino people.´
5B.Peruvian Revolution
Peru is economically a semi-feudal and semi-colonial country. True,there is a greater urban population but that does not mean that peoples war cannot work. Right from the days of the great Revolutionary Jose Carlos Mariategui a thesis was written that the peasantry would be the principal force. Comrade Mariategui had an analysis very similar to Mao and in Comrade Gonzalo´s view was the first to actually interpret the role of the peasantry. Mao´s view were a lot similar to those of Mariteugi.Comrade Marituegi vehemently opposed the parliament and called for t always upheld revolutionary violence. Gonzalo´s later Maoist interpretation was very much based on the theoretical analysis of Mariteugi However there is much more urban area in Peru than China. There are huge slums. In Peru true Guzman and 2 other Central Committee leaders have been arrested. Only Mao Tse Tung thought enabled Comrade Gonzalo from Extricating the revolutionary movement from the Wrong trends and expelling the capitulationist Del Prado Faction in 1965.Comrade Guzman fought against the revisionist Del Prado faction advocating open parliamentary democratic functioning as well as the tendency that opposed all open forms of functioning.It had similarities with Mao opposing both Lii Li San,Wang Mings left deviations and Chang Kuo Ta´s rightist capitulation. Guzman laid the ground for Peoples Mass fronts particularly in peasants and youth. The maoist thesis helped Comrade Guzman formulate a mass line. The concept of a mass patriotic liberation Front was propounded. In 1970The Peruvian Communist party document stated “We repeat our general guiding policy that the only way to defeat enemies of the Revolution is by means of Peoples revolutionary war, that, is, by co-coordinating and combining political fighting with political struggle of the masses, particularly with the peasants Armed struggle should not be restricted to the participation of small Groups isolated fro the masses, but should be based on the participation of the masses. Otherwise guerilla units can depend on nature for temporary survival, but cannot grow sufficiently to be followed by the whole people, whom also mean the workers of cities, must be organized on a class and revolutionary basis. Armed Struggle without the support of masses in cities and countryside. The fundamental task of the party is to build a united front of the oppressed classes. The front comprises the working class, the peasants, the petite bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie.Anotherdocument stated “The proletarians “need not only a just Marxist political line but also a just Marxist military line.” Without the guidance of a correct political line, it is impossible to develop a correct military line, and without a correct military line, it is also impossible to apply and implement a correct political line.This truth has been understood by the Marxist-Leninist [Maoist] parties of Latin America, which have made efforts to prepare themselves for the People`s War and dare to carry on the People`s War, following the proletarian military line of Comrade Mao Tse-tung.Thanks to the correct orientation of the Marxist-Leninist [Maoist] parties and the powerful influence of the International Communist Movement, the idea that “power grows from the barrel of the gun,” a priceless teaching of Mao Tse-tung, that has taken deep roots in the masses, there is a greater and more profound understanding of the basic ideas of the People`s War and the People`s Army: the War of the People, and the Army of the People.
Understanding the road of the People`s War, and under the Leadership of their Communist Parties, the Marxist-Leninists [Maoists] of Latin America have consistently gone to the rural areas to do political work among the peasants` masses, and to lay down the bases for revolutionary wars.
The leadership of the Communist Parties, the Marxist-Leninists is a very important and essential factor for the triumph of the People`s War in Latin America. Only such Parties, armed with the invincible Mao Tse-tung Thought [Maoism], will be able to carry on assuredly and victoriously the revolutionary struggles until the end.
Our glorious Communist Party is a firm Marxist-Leninist [Maoist] party. Within our Party have been always struggles at every historical stage of the development of the revolution, between two diametrically opposed military lines. Our party has known how to successfully defend the proletarian military line, contributing mightily to defeat the false theories of contemporary revisionism and petty-bourgeois tercerismo.
In 1969 the Columbian pro-China party brought out a significant document stating …‘ Our Peoples liberation Army operating in North East Columbia, is not one typical guerilla Army backed by Cuba. Our Army rejects directions from above. We have real peasant support based on previous indoctrination. The leaders, who are armed and live in the area, have shown tat they have assimilated other people´s experience and learnt from their own mistakes, and are conducting an armed struggle new to Latin America. could collapse.
The 1988 Party Plenum document stated ” In the Reconstitution. Chairman Gonzalo establishes the mass line of the Party and the organic forms. This is in a period of over 15 years of hard two-line struggle which achieves partial leaps. In the first political strategy of the Reconstruction he develops the initiation of the mass work of the Party, all the militants in Ayacucho did peasant work and with the civil construction workers, for example, also with the intellectuals and poor masses in the slums. He supported the land seizures and carried out peasant events, the most transcendental being the I Regional Convention of Peasants of Ayacucho where the agrarian program was established. He led the historic struggles of June 20, 21 and 22 in 1969 in Ayacucho and Huanta, mobilizing the masses of secondary school students, parents and families against Decree 006 of General Velasco which was defeated. He organized the People`s Defense Front of Ayacucho, reorganized the Revolutionary Student Front (FER), created the Popular Feminine Movement (MFP), the Center for Mariátegui`s Intellectual Work (CETIM), the Revolutionary Secondary School Student Front (FRES) and above all the Poor Peasants` Movement (MCP). Thus, he established new politics in mass work, new forms of struggle and new organic formsIn the third political strategy of the Reconstitution, the Party broadly developed its mass work in the zones of the Sierra, linking itself with the peasants, primarily the poor peasants. In the cities it linked itself with the proletariat and masses in the slums and shantytowns. The generated organisms have played a good role within the culmination of the reconstitution and laying foundations for the armed struggle. The specific lines were developed even further, so that the Classist Movement of Workers and Laborers (MOTC) proposed the 15 basic theses for the workers` movement; the Poor Peasant Movement (MCP) politicized the peasants with the agrarian program specified for new conditions; in the Shantytown Classist Movement (MCB) the List of denunciations and demands of the people was published; the Student Revolutionary Front (FER) further developed the thesis of the Defense of the University against corporativism; the Revolutionary Secondary School Student Front (FRES) impelled the struggle of students for people`s education; the Popular Feminine Movement (MFP) raised the thesis of women`s Emancipation, impelling the mobilization of working women, peasant women, shantytown dwellers and students. Furthermore, there was participation in the United Syndicate of Peruvian Educational Workers (SUTEP) which led to its specific class line being adopted in the 1970s. The National Federation of Peruvian University Teachers (FENTUP) was also formed. All of this work entered into a broad ideological-political mobilization to initiate the People`s War. In the cities, the mass work is carried out by the Army as well, and the main thing is the struggle for power through the People`s War, with the struggle for revindications serving political power as a necessary complement. Obviously, this happens through many armed actions with the goal of materializing the new forms of organization. We formed the Peoples`s Revolutionary Defense Movement (MRDP), which attracts masses from the workers, peasants, shanty towns and petty bourgeoisie, neutralizing the middle bourgeoisie, aiming toward the democratic forces which support the People`s War. The objective is to lead the masses towards resistance and to the elevation of their struggles into People`s War, to hinder, undermine and upset the old State and serve the future insurrection, preparing the cities with People`s War specified as complementary. We use the double policy of developing our own forms, which is principal, and penetrating all types of organizations. We apply Combat and Resist!”
The 1979 P.C.P plenum is also of enormous significance to Mao Tse Tung Thought. This clearly explains the scientific basis of Armed Struggle. A major rectification campaign took place in 1979.In the 1970´ s mass work was set up and painstaking work was done in setting up people´s mass organizations. People´s schools were also set up. After a meticulous education campaign in the villages´ peoples War was launched in 1980.The Peruvian Communist Party established bases of revolutionary people´s power through the People´s Guerilla Army. Revolutionary Peoples Committees were formed in villages consisting of 5 members. They represented the broad masses. And chosen by representatives of the village mass organizations, of poor peasants, labuorers ,women, intellectuals, youth and children. Revolutionary democratic changes had to be carried out in the sphere of new politics, economics and new culture in the Countryside. By 1982 Revolutionary peasant committees had been created in the countryside. In the towns workers and youth organizations were mobilized in support. Peru is predominantly an agricultural country and thus the Countryside was given most importance. Peruvian Comrades heroically resisted their ruling government forces and set up some revolutionary base areas .At the end of 1986 the party had established a plan to develop base areas. In the early 1990´s the way the resisted the state armed forces encirclement was truly remarkable. The arrest of Comrade Gonzalo first and later 2 other leaders led to major setbacks. The 1988 P.C.P plenum documents are of historical significance in studying mass line. A rectification campaign was launched. Heroic armed actions followed and in 1991 a studied document was brought out explaining points of strategic defensive, strategic equilibrium and Strategic offensive. This upheld at least theoretically the Chinese Experience. The 19th June 1986 political prisoners resistance in El Fronton Prison in Ayacucho was of historical significance to mass revolutionary Struggle. Prisoners of revolutionary war dipped their blood, which flowed like a river. One weakness in the Peoples war was the lack of working class forces in the Cities. The other factor was the disunity at the International level. Here the P.C.P leadership had to account for some blame as they were the first to convert the term Mao Tse Tung thought to Maoism, claiming Gonzalo thought as a new Ideology and also gave exaggerated emphasis on the possibility of third world war. The R.I.M, being a prematurely formed body and internal disunity between Revolutionary parties also went against the Peruvian cause Today there is a conflict between the R.IM supporters and the C.O.R.I.M.The El Diaro and the Peru Peoples movement are conflicting with each other.(M.P.P.ACCUSES El Diaro of being revisionist and not upholding 2 line struggle). However one cannot blame Mao Tse Tung thought for the recent setback in the movement The Revolutionary movement had a setback with their inability to implement a correct revolutionary mass line in recent years. The Peruvian Communist Party had mistakes in their international line. They advocated the era as the era of Maoism and failed to understand that after the collapse of Soviet Union, it was the combined force of Imperialism that had to be attacked and the Tactical Significance of American Imperialism could only be differentiated of only in a situation of sharpened Imperialist Contention for markets. By terming their ideology of Gonzalo thought being the highest development in Marxism –Leninism the Peruvian Comrades violated Mao Tse Tung thought. The Chinese never termed the ideology as Marxism-Leninism and Mao Tse Tung Thought even on completion of the Chinese Revolution! Before completing their revolution the Peruvian Comrades termed it Marxism-Leninism Maoism Gonzalo Thought! They advocated Gonzalo thought as the chief International line. It is like Mao calling Mao Tse Tung thought, the Marxism of his era befor leading the Chinese Revolution!The Peruvian Comrades carried out heroic military actions but it is debatable whether they were able to implement Mao´ s line of protracted Peoples War Correctly. One possibility is that adequate powers of revolutionary resistance were not developed in the Cities. It is also possible that all the armed action s of the party was not based on the peoples armed movements and would not necessarily build peoples revolutionary movement. Another deviation in a 1988 documents is when it is stated that the People´s Guerilla Army does all the mass work. This is not a mass revolutionary formulation as the proletarian party also plays a role in mass work. It is unlikely that this occurred on the practical plane. One other weakness on the Peruvian line was their rejection of participation in the parliament as a strategic line.True the
parliament is a reactionary institution but Comrade Lenin and Mao stated
that for tactical purposes in certain situations the proletarian party could
participate in the Elections. This neglects open legal forms of revolutionary struggle by the Peruvian Communist Party. There is a trend of the movement where broad based people`s movements in the major cities have been neglected or not sufficiently built up linking to the revolutionary peasant struggle The relationship of the movement in the Countryside to the Cities is like the relationship of a plant`s roots to the plant. Lenin opposed the parliament but always explained that in certain conditions the revolutionary party could utilize legal,exta-parliamentary form s of Struggle. In Semi-colonial countries participation in election is the correct tactic in certain stages. This thesis of boycott being a strategic line is erroneous. Today there is a possibility of left deviations in the Peruvian Communist party particularly after the arrest of 3 Central Committee leaders. The confusion on the existence of 2 line Struggle is also controversial. However the continuous flurry of armed actions by the People´s Guerrilla Army shows that the movement still exists. Only Mao Tse Tung thought facilitated such a movement whatever the possible deviations. What distinguished the politics of the Sendero Luminoso from other movements in El Salvador, Nicaragua Etc was that it carried out a revolutionary protracted People´s War for a considerable period of time in contrast to Foco Actions in El Salvador and Earlier in Cuba. Differentiating the role of the People´s Guerilla Army from the Party Organization and creating revolutionary Red Base areas with revolutionary committees was of major significance to the thought of Mao Tse Tung .The Peruvian Comrades have heroically written a chapter in the annals of revolutionary armed struggle.
India´s mode of production is still semi- colonial and semi-feudal and capitalist agriculture has not developed despite the onslaught of globalization. In the period of 1946-1951 a major peasant Armed Struggle was led by the Communist Party of
India( demarcating from Orthodox Stalinist trends) in the Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh on the basis of the Chinese path applying Mao´s line. Here 1000´s of acres of land were re-distributed. Revolutionary mass organs of people´s political power were formed. In 1967 some Comrades after a bitter struggle left the Revisionist Communist Party o f India Marxist upholding Marxism Leninism Mao Tse Tung Thought. The Naxalbari Struugle was an offshoot of Mao´s thought. In 1969 under the leadership of Charu Mazumdar the Naxalbari peasant Struggles took place but it fell prey to left devation. Instead of propounding Protracted Peoples war Propounded by Comrade Mao, Charu propagated the line of the …‘Annihilation of the Class Enemies´ Mass organizations were disbanded and armed actions were implemented by armed squads isolated from the masses. Comrades Tarimala Nagi Reddy and Sushital Roy Choudhary were 2Comrades who bitterly struggled against this adventurist trend.The re-organization of the party of the proletariat has yet to take place and there is no single unified party of the proletariat. Factions representing various trends exist allover the Country. In India the Marxist Leninist movement is vitiated with diversionary trends. One trend has a strong mass base amongst the peasantry and is leading peasant Struggles in Andhra Pradesh Bihar and Dandkarnya and are claiming to uphold Mao´s line of protracted Peoples War. No doubt they are sincere comrades and have made supreme sacrifices literally dipping their blood. They have led peasant struggles of over lakhs of peasants. However they fail in implementing the mass revolutionary line. True they have built up mass forums but they use mass organization s as front organizations and fail to give them democratic identity. Although there is a mass revolutionary peasant movement in such states the activities of the armed squads fail to integrate with the movements of the broad masses in the villages as to build protracted Peoples War. Their armed actions are often isolated from the masses and invite repression on the masses. One major obstacle in the movements has been group clashes involving squads of groups following similar trends in Bihar! Toady the subjective conditions for launching armed Struggle does not exist. Strong bases of people´s revolutionary power are required to facilitate armed struggle These conditions are like the need for a strong bark and strong roots to hold the branches of a tree. This trend also fails to understand the correct relationship between the party and the mass organizations.They impose the party politics using mass organizations as Front organizations instead of democratically functioning within them.. The peasant organizations under this trend like the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad in Bihar and the Rytu Coolie Sangham in Andhra can hardly function openly. Nor can youth forums like the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the Democratic Students Union in Bihar and the Radical Students Union and Radical Youth League in Bihar. No doubt such organizations have led heroic struggle s both for partial demands and for democratic and political causes but still cannot reach the level of democratic functioning needed to carry out peoples War. Comrade Mao always differentiated between the role of the Communist Youth League to that of the Chinese Communist Party. Lenin and Stalin also stressed on the important differences between the role of the party and the mass organizations.Their relationship is like the bones of a body ,supporting flesh. Another trend is represented by organizations that participate in the electoral process and advocate open party functioning. This is revisionist. Their movements have virtually surrendered and are now a part of Ruling class politics. Their mass fronts have been reduced to totally parliamentary reformist outfits or in some case affected by economist tendencies. Lastly the theoretically most correct revolutionary trend in India upholding Mao Tse Tung Thought has still to build up major revolutionary movements countrywide This trend has made the most correct theoretical approach amongst Indian Leninist Groups with regards to both the national and international situation. The differentiating aspect of this trend is the correct relationship between a mass organization and a revolutionary party.It also defers armed Struggle before people´s revolutionary consciousness has been created and people´s organs of revolutionary power have been formed . Marxism Leninism Mao Tse Tung thought enabled this trend to emerge. The Malkangiri Adivasi Sangh and the Punjab Dehati Mazdur Union has made great strides and so has the Punjab Lok Morcha. Mass organizations are indispensable it is vital that the revolutionary party functions democratically within them. The Malkangiri Adivasi Sangh is a classic Example of revolutionary building of people´s political power and so is the Lok Morcha. Earlier such a trend was followed by the Punjab Students Union.In Punjab during the Khalistani movement such a trend applied the mass line in combating the state and Khalistani terror. (Refer to Article on Post -Independence Revolutionary Democratic Struggle in India) through the anti communal and anti repression Front. Similar work was done during the1993 Babri Masjid Riots where mass forums of revolutionary resistance were formed to combat communal forces. However only when an all India revolutionary movement is built can it be proved that this trend has laid the seeds for revolutionary mass armed Struggle. Mao Tse Tung thought is the chief weapon of leadership of even the revolutionary mass struggles.Marxism Leninism Mao Tse Tung Thought enabled comrades to stage the historic demarcation from revisionism. The same ideology was responsible for the development of the proletarian revolutionary or mass line in contrast to left and right adventurist trends. India also has the phenomenon of Casteism and communalism. In this sphere it is the groups who upheld Comrade Mao´s thought both in the left sectarian and the mass line camp that contributed most significantly. This trend has also taken the correct stand on the Indian Nationality movements representing armed struggles in Kashmir, Assam Etc. Although this trend supports the revolutionary democratic aspirations of the Kashmiri and Assamese people,it does not uphold groups leading those movements as their political line is vitiated by the imperialist countries and has not demarcated t from ruling class or imperialist forces.
On the international line there was a trend that upheld the 3-world theory attributing it to Comrade Mao. It was Deng and not Mao who created this revisionist thesis whereby the European Countries were allies of the revolutionary struggles of the 3rd World Countries against the Imperialist Superpowers. This trend caused havoc and was the source of the rightist trend. The Correct International line today opposes imperialism as such without tactically differentiating U.S.Imperialism. That would be relevant only when there is sharpened Imperialist contention for markets.Mao Tse Tung Thought enabled the correct International line to emerge.
In Nepal a Maoist armed movement has taken place led by the Nepalese Communist Party Maoist. Theoretically the Struggle has demonstrated the correctness of Mao Tse Tung thought. They claim to have successfully implemented a series of strategic plans of initiation and continuation of the Peoples war and claim to exercise local democratic local organs of people´s power called 3 in 1 combinations representing the party, army and the local masses. Implementing the maoist concept of Revolutionary United Front of the masses of different classes, nationalities and regions oppressed for Centuries. At the Initiation of the Peoples War 5000 reported actions took place. These were prominent in the Western,Central,Eastern, and Kathmandu Valley Regions of Nepal,what amounts to 65% of the Country. Police Camps were raided. An agricult