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Deviations in the Maoist Revolutionary Camp in India

7. January 2005

by Harsh Thakor

1. Introduction.

Being a semi-colonial and semi-feudal Country feudalism is the principal contradiction in India which is not a neo-colony like Latin American Countries.In India we have plain areas,forests big cities and towns and though there is capitalist development ,especially after the globalisation era the mode of production is principally semi-feudal True India has characteristics different from China and a military line has to be developed unique to it´s own conditions.However conditions exist whereby the Thought of Mao Tse Tung can be applied taking into account the co-relation of forces between the rural areas and he towns and big cities.Here is an essay principally explaining the deviations within the Revolutionary Camp in India,explaining the left sectarian and right deviationist tendencies.The Author has principally focused on the Left Sectarian roots of the just formed Communist Party Of India(Maoist)

2. Era of Naxalbari

In 1967 a historic peasant Struggle took place on Maoist Lines. This was known as the Naxalbari armed Struggle. It had it´s origin in the Struggle of Tea Plantation Workers in Siliguri in West Bengal.In 1964 the Communist Party of India Split and the Communist Party of India Marxist was Formed.However within the party a set of Comrades upheld the Cultural Revolution inChina and opposed parliamentarism of their leadership group called the All India Co-Ordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries was formed led by Comrade Charu Mazumdar was formed.An Organ liberation was brought out and the body discussed how to link revolutionary peasant Struggles.Marxism-Leninism Mao Tse Tung Thought was upheld as the Marxisnm leninsm of the Era.A resolution was made advocating the building of armed Struggle all over the Country.In The Co-Ordinarion Committee however a powerful tendency developed to behave in a big brotherly fashion to other Comrades. The A.I.C.C.R ordered all the comrades of the Communist Party of India Marxist to join them.It acted like an all India Party.Various Comrades all around the Country were demarcating from the Communist Party of India Marxist but had not formally broken away.They were still the equivalent of an embryo in a mother´s stomach and prematurely were told to quit the party.In June 1968 finally the Comrades of the Andhra Pradesh Communist Party of India Marxist left the Party to form the Andhra Pradesh Co-ordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries.Tarimal Nagi Reddy was made the Convenor .In 1968 November they joined the A.I.C.C.C.R.however shortly later a conflict arose between the A.I.C.C.R and the Andhra Pradesh Co-ordination Committee.The A.I.C.C.R propogated that the Andhra Committee Comrades were revisionists and opposed Armed Struggle.In the Srikakulam region they even directly called for arned actions and recruited comraese without cosulting the Andhra Stae Committee.(Taken from Indian Revolutionary Movemnt”Some Lessons and Experience”)

Ultimately the A.I.C.CR.expelled the A.P.C.C.R from the Party.The reasons were on difference to 3 major Questions.

1.) The role of the Chinese Party.The A.I.C.C.R felt that the Chinese party was the absolute leader and called Mao the Chairman of the Indian party.They used the phrase, “China´s Chairman is our Chairman”

2.) That the Andhra Committee Comrades were making no attempts to intensify the peasant Struggle in the Srikakulam Region of Andhra Pradesh.

3.) . On the Question of Elections. The A.I.C.C.R felt that the path of active Boycott was a strategic path for the Indian Revolution and opposed the use of participation of parliamentary Elections as a tactical mean throughout the revolutionary period. They opposed the Andhra Committee Comrades who stated that in appropriate Situations as an extra-parliamentary tactic participation in the Election could be deployed as a tactic.Comrade Nagi Reddy was condemned for not resigning from the State Assembly.

4The Charu Mazumdar C.P.I.M.L considered the whole section of the bourgeoise as Comprador by natute and failed to recognise the progressive nature of the national bourgeoisie who can be part of the united Front against the Enemy like In China before the Revolutin i 1949.

Several Armed actions were advocated by the A.I.C.CR with no relationship to the level of the Peoples movement.Charu Mazumdar advocated the line of, “Individual Annihilation of the Class Enemy”.A major 2 line Struggle took place within the A.I.C.CR and the Andhra Pradesh Committee Comrades led by Devullapali Venkateshwara Rao and Tarimala Nagi Reddy.Comrade D.V believed that elections could never be used as a tactic unlike Comrade Nagi Reddy.The A.I.C.C.R comrades claimed that Srikakulam was already a liberated base area. Naxalbari was a mass based peasant Struggle where in the village of Naxalbari the peasant`s seized land from the Jotedars.

(Landlords)However this mass Struggle was later abandoned and took the coruse of “Annihilation of the Class Enemy”Btween 1958 to 1962 the West Bengal Kisan Sabha gave a call for the peasants to recapture the (benami` land.However the Naxalbari Kisan Samiti declared in their conference that the partial struggle for recovery of`benami` land would not serve the purpose of real land reforms,and hence the peasants should seize the entire produce of the Jotedars land.the Conference gave a call 1.Reap and Store the harvest at your own place and raise the Red Flag. 2.Jotedars must establish proof of ther ownership before the peasant
committee without which no share would be given to them. 3.Arm yourself to Protect the Crop 4.Save your Crop from the Police.

The Struggle became so sharp that 2000 peasants were arrested that year and 700 Criminal Cases were launched.The militant peasants combated the Jotedarsand even disarmed their opponents5,000 armed peasant sresisted Congress Goondas and Police and enabled peasants to procure their entire produce.During the 1962 Indo-China Border clash the Naxalbari peasants supported Red China disruptig meetings of Ruling Class Chauvinsits balming Maoist China.In June December 1956 Party Cadres of the Communist party of India in Naxalbari from the revolutionary ranks propogated politics of Agraria Revolution amongst revolutionary Ranks.Joint struggles of tea plantation workers and peasants emerged which had tremendous significance to the mass revolutionary line.(The Unity of workers and peasants is the fundamental foundation for a mass revolutionary movement)This was an ideal contrast to the later turn of events where the mass Naxalbari peasant movement was converted to terrorist armed actions of armed squads.This Inspired workers of tea plantations to a great Extent.A huge struggle erupted of the tea workers and the peasants.The Peasantry was so overwhelmingly boosted by this that in September 1966 stared their struggle for Crop Seizure.Armed workers and peasants harvested paddy and even snatched guns.Displaying rock like resistance they combated the armed police who came forward to seize Crops.Just after the 1967 General Elections,the sharecroppers of Naxalbari gave heroic resistance to the JotedarsVarious area confefernces were staged procuring seizure of Jotedars land.60Incidents of Land Occupation and Forcible harvesting were reported in 274 square miles under Naxalbari,Kharibari and Phansidewa police Thanas. On May 7th 1967 a sub-divisional joint conference of Workers and Peasants gave an official call for the confiscation of the Jotedars land and establishment of the armed power of the Workers and peasants.On May 23rd the Naxalbari peasant Struggle began .On May 23rd a clash took place between the police and tribal peasants ,in which a policeman was killed.In retaliation the police killed 7 women and Children.The seeds of the movement were laid down.

Unfortunately due to Charu Mazumdar`s line of abandoning mass organization and carrying out Individual Annihilation of class Enemies the movement degenerated into one of armed Squad Actions isolated from the People`s movements.

Their understanding of Mao´s theory of protracted Peoples war was distorted. Comrade Charu Mazumdar called for the abandonment of trade Unions and mass organizations. Instead of applying the revolutionary mass line and developing mass revolutionary Struggles individual terrorist Armed action s replaced them. Armed Squads killed landlords and attacked police Stations without the mass support of the broad masses.They were popular amongst the peasant masses but prevented the broad masses from building their own institutions or revolutionary democratic power. In the Chinese revolutionary Armed Struggle Armed squads supplemented the mass movements of people and did not substitute them.

On April22nd 1969 Charu Mazumdar formed the Communist Party of India Marxist Leninist.Today historically major quarters of the Indian Revolutionary Camp uphold it but it is a debatable question whether the formation of the party should have been deferred.Some Intellectuals like Manoranjan Mohanty or Sumanta Banerjee upheld the formation.However others like Mohan Ram oppoed it saying that the Party was imposed from above and not formed from below./Apart from the Andhra Pradesh Comrades a formation called the Dakshin Desh Group opertating in Begal and Bihar opposed the formation of the Party. They believed that base areas had not been sufficiently developed.In their view class struggle had not been sufficiently developed and that overemphasis was given to military armed actions.However they felt that th the individual annihilation of class enemy could be used as a tactic.This organization went on to call itself the Maoist Communist Centre.It is significant that Comrdae Soren Bose,a central Committee member of the Charu Mazumdar C.P.I.M.L visted China in 1970 and met Premier Chou En-Lai.The Premier himself stated that the policies of Annihilation were wrong and it was wrong to copy the Chinese Experience in toto.and call Chairman Mao Chairman of India´s party.Comrade Chou elaborated how the C.C.P comabated left adventurism.He alos stated that it was wrong to call the whole class of the bourgeoisie as comprador as the National bourgeoisie can be an ally.

Historically the Charu Mazumdar line failed.Charu was tortured to death by the Indian State on July 28th 1972.By 1975 his movement was totally defeated. Thousands of cadres were killed in false encounters or thrown into jail.There were various splits within the Charu Mazumdar C.PI.M.L.One was because of the Mahadev Mukherjee faction which upheld Lin Biao the leader who attemped to assassinate Mao. Historically later some revolutionary quarters held Lin Biao responsible for the annihilation line.Lin had advocated that it was the era of “Total collapse of Imperialism and victory of Peoples War”.One theory is that it was Lin Biaoism which led to Charu´s line of secreat assassination and abandonment of mass organizations and mass struggle.In Punjab the group that followed the Charu Mazumdar line made a self criticism and formed the Central Organising Committee of C.P.I.M.L.This Group was led by Jagjit Singh Johal In Punjab hundreds of Naxalite supporters were killed in false encounters or thrown into jail and tortured.In Andhra Pradesh the Andhra Pradesh State Committee of the C.PI.M.L made similar criticism .Later this group was to become the Communist Party of India Peoples war in 1980.It was resolved that it was wrong to abandon the path of mass movements and the formation of revolutionary mass movements .It ws also resolved that it was wrong to claim the entire section of the bourgeoisie as comprador.In 1973 the Radical Students Union was formed in Andhra Pradesh under the Influnce of the Charu Mazumdar Line.In Bihar the Unity Group similar to Peoples war made an assessment calling for building mass movements.In 1978 the Unity organization was formed in Bihar which later merged with the C.O.C to form the C.P.I.M.L Party Unity Group.They called for building peasant organizations and a revolutionary peasant movement.Unlike all these groups the Vinod Mishra led C.P.I.M.L group,which originated from the Bhojpur movement. in 1982 called for using parliamentary means of revolutionary struggle and formed the Indian Peoples Fron.He advocated armed struggle but believed that a mass revolutionary parliamentary forum could be a major belt to building a revolutionary mass movement.In 1979 the Kerala Comrades who were the followers of the Charu Mazumdar line but did not join the party formed the Central Re-Organisation Committee of the C.P.I.M.L.they also rectified the earlier line .One most significant formation was that of the Central Team of the Communist Party of India Marxist Leninis t that was formed in December 1977.They made a thorough historical review and were the first group from the Charu Mazumdar section to explain how the annihilation line differed from Mao´s protracted Peoples War.

In the Non Charu Mazumdar Sections the major formations that took place in the 1970´s were the groups ;led by Chandra Pulla Reddy Satya Narayan Singh and Tarimal Nagi Reddy.In the early 1970´s Comrade Chandra Pulla Reddy split away from Comrades Nagi Redy and D.V Rao to form his own Andhra Pradesh Revolutionary Communist Part that merged with Stya Narayan Singhs Group in 1974.

3. Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union.-30 th Anniversary year

In the 1970´s the Charu Mazumdar followers who worked through the Radical Students Union had a huge mass base and were sincere revolutionaries ,However there line was vitiated by left adventurist thought.They upheld Mao Tse Tung thought with regards to important aspects of the line bit in practice often upheld the left sectarian line with regard to mass organizations. They advocated that Mao Tse Tung Thought had to be placed in a manifesto of a mass organization.On the campus and on the field the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union led many a struggle and several comrades dipped their blood.In the late 1970´s Go to Villages Campaigns were initiated on Maoist Lines.The Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Unioin was formed in 1974 They waged a 2 line struggle against the Progressive Democratic Students Union.It´s origin was in the Progressive Democratic Students Group led by Comrade George Reddy Te Comrdae was assassinated in in April 1972.Subsequentlythere was a conflict of political Trends.One trend was that which claimed to support the political line of Naxalbari and Srikakulam and the other´s upheld the lines of Tarimala Nagi Reddy and Chandra Pulla Reddy.One trend claimed that the student movement should build the armed agrarian revolution in the villages ,while the other claimed that the student movement should br confined to Student problems only. The Radical Students Union trend claimed that the student movement should be linked to that of New Democratic Revolution.The Progressive Democratic Students Union supported the Agrarian Revolution but claimed that it was premature to totally integrate the revolutionary student movement with the villages. The Democratic Students Union trend led by Nagi Reddy had similar views.The Radicals held the view that unless the present semi-feudal,semi-colonial Indian Society is abolished totally and New Democracy is built in it´s place,none of the basic problems confronting the students and people can be solved.To theem the Naxalbari Revolutionary line of Charu Mazumdar which included th e annihilation thesis had to be concluded.In February 1975 Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union held it´s first sate conference.Students from all over Telengana Region in Andhra Pradesh,especially from Karimnagar,Warangal,Khammam and Nalgonda Distructs took part in this conference in large numbers.Shortly after the conference Emergency was proclaimed in India by the Indira Gandhi Government.More than 500 Radical students were victims of inhuman torture.Hundreds of them were arrested.In that period Comrades Janardan,Murali Mohan Anand Rao and Sudhakar in Medak District were martyred in Giraipally Forests.Similarly Comrade Nagaraju was arrested and shot.The Radical Students Union office was ransacked.The radical Students Union developed underground methods of Struggle,They took up struggles to combat the governments filtration policy of detaining school students in the pretext of raising the educational standards.Through that policy the government manipulated the unemployment figures and stated that together with that problem the problem of inadequacy of seats was solved for all the time.The bankruptcy of the detention system was exposed Pamphlets were also distributed condemning repression on the toiling masses and secretly giving support to people´s struggles ,particularly in villages. Secretly, the revolutionary journal, “The Radical ” was brought out to co-ordinate the student movements in various regions.It wasa tribue to the Radical´s corage and political determination that they withstood the emergency onslaught.Campaigns were carried out against the black laws.In the post emergencuyperiod a major programmes were hel;d in defence of Democratic Rights.On July 20th 1977 demanding the dismissal of the Vegal Rao´s government ,the release of all political prisoners,the scrapping of the disturbed areas act and a judicial inquiry against the false encounter killings.From all over the state students assembled in huge numbers.In 1977 the Radical Students Union introduced a change in their draft.This stated that the main political objective of the revolution should not be propogated through mass organisationjs and that mass organizations should confine themselves to partial demands.The Radical Students Union also decided to hold …‘Boycott the Elections Campaign”.As a preparation for the 2nd state conference the boycott of elections campign was conducted in co-ordinatuion with the task of building Radical Students Union Units in every college.The 2nd stae conference was successfully held moblising 3000 delegates.In 1978 it was decided to conduct “Got to Villages Campaign”.Agrarian Revolutionary Politics was propogated in the villages. And a base was created for building a revolutionary Youth Organisation.,forming Youth League Units in every village.Signature campigns were carried out on democratic Rigts DemandsIn June 1978 the first Ste Conference of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Youh League was held.In 1979 the 3rd stae conference was heldwhere the National and International situation was reviewded.In April,May and June in 1979 the first joint Go To Villages Campaign was held of the Radical Youth League and the Radical Students Union. This time preparatory classes were held in 15 centres in which 500 students and youth participated.

The Organisation won several victories in the College Elections In 1985 in Hyderabad Polytechnic college they were victorious in the college union elections.In 1984 they gave solidarity to the Sikasa Coal miners Struggle.They meticulously aided the strike of the Sikasa Mine workers trying to educate them wit revolutionary politics.They educated and organized the peasantry on partial demands and armed struggle and also formed units of the Radical Youth League.However although they led a huge peasant movement their line was significantly affected by left adventurism.Often their actions substituted peoples mass movements instead of substituting them.Often the masses were left as spectators.A correct policy was not adopted towards a democratic functioning revolutionary mass organization..In the manifesto of Radical Students Union it was declared that Mao Tse Tung Thought was the guiding ideology.That is the guiding ideology of a revolutionary political p[arty and not that of a mass organization.Comrade Mao always differentiated between the party and the mass organization.Often Student cadres annihilated class enemies .True there were great sacrifices.Political study classes were held but their were strong vanguardist tendencies in the methods of working with the broad masses.True students were educated and peasants organized but a base was not created to create revolutionary democratic functioning in a broad based mass organization.In the Go To Village Campains they educated the masses byt often the Comrades participated in killings of landlords without the broad participation of the masses.Anarchist activity like burning of railway station or busstops was also used.The Organisation took positions and conducted protest on International Issues like the Rusian Invasion of Afghanistan..They called for a world wide anti Soviet United Front.(A wrong tendency which actually applied Deng Xiaopings capitulationist 3 worlds theory)Struggles wer they led for Democratic Rights. In 1981 they participated in a mjor agitation for the release of political prisoners,(Including Koondappali Seetaramiah,the peoples war leader)Meetings were held all over the state.The month of August was observed as Protest week opposing the False encounters.Significantly the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union joined hands with other progressive organization slike the A.P.C.LC,progressive Democratic Student Union,Indian Federation of Trade Unnions,Revolutionary Writers Assoosciation,Jana Natya Mandali Etc.On August 14th Anti-Repression day was observed.In 1982 a rally was held at Hyderabad on August 18th protesting against Encounter killings.In the 1985-86 Period The Radical Students Unnion chalked out a new strategy of countering the State Repression .Secretist method of functioning would now be adopted in contrast to open methods ,however all the revolutionary politics would be propogated. .In thatPeriod Comrade Nageshwar Rao ws martyred.He was a major Comrade who was killed in a fake encounter in 1982.The 7th Radical Students Union Conference piad homage to him.

Toady the Organisation is unable to function openly.In the last decade it heroically held underground conferences.It smajor leaders have been killed. Until the late 1990´s the organization was carrying out their district conferences and held their last state conference in 1996.The Organisation played a major role in the staging of all the All India Revolutionary Student Federation Conferences .(The last 2 in Calcutta In 1996 and Delhi in 1999)

4. C.P.I.M.L Liberation Group and forming the Indian Peoples Front

Comrade Vinod Mishra was a staunch supporter of the Charu mazumdar line and was the first to re-organise the Bhojpur faction of the C.P.I M.L that came out of jail and supported the Charu line after the revolutionary martyrdom of Comrade Johar(30th death Anniversary year,martyred in 1974)In the late 1970´s the calling itself the Liberation group carried out attacks on police stations .However from the late 1970´s a rectification line was launched whereby the annihilation line was demarcated from .In 1981 under the influence of the C.P.I.M.L Liberation Group a historic meeting of 13 revolutionary Groups took place.However te Unity efforts were unsuccessful.In 1982 the Indian Peoples Front a mass revolutionary Front was formed as an Extra Parliamentary form of revolutionary Struggle.This had historic significance as it saw the need for a mass democratic revolutionary Front to promote the broad based democratic aspiration sof the People.At an All India level it tried to co-ordinate movements for Democratic Rights and held a huge convention.However resorting to participation in the parliamentary election without sufficient development of the party of the proletariat and revolutionary democratic structures linked with the armed agrarian revolution led the group to Capitulation.It also had electoral alliances with ruling class parties like the Janata Party.This amounted to alliances with the Comprador bourgeoisie Ruling Classes.In India´s semi –colonial Structure we do not have developed bourgeois democracy and parliamentary Instititions can be used as means of legal struggles only in Certain Conditions.The …‘Dengist´ Influence was the chief cause of this tendency to form a …‘broad democratic Front.´In the 1980´s it built up a huge revolutionary peasant movement in Bihar but in the late 1980´ met with a huge setback.Earlier it upheld the Chinese leadership of Deng Xiaoping but now in 1988 it termed Gorbachev´s Soviet Russia as Socialist annd called for Unity with the Revisionist C.P.I and this group is basically revisionist and only wears a revolutionary garb.However it created a great number of revolutionary cadres particularly in the earlier period.Winning them over to the revolutionary Camp would be of great value.In that sense the organisation has made an invaluable contribution.

5.Evaluation of C.P.I.M.L. Janashakti

The Janasahakti Group was formed in 1992 by the merger of the Ramchandran Group,the Unity Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India (Muktigami group),the Pyla Vasudeva Group the West Bengal Co-ordination committee led by Parimal Dasgupta,the CP.I.M.L led by Konkan Mazumdar.It was a most opportunist Unity.Without resolving major issues for uniting they merged into a single organization. Suddenly they said that the formation of the Charu Mazumdar C.P.I.ML was correct and at the same time upheld the lines of T.Nagi Reddy and Chandra Pulla Reddy!In no time this group split into 5 different Organisations.The organization although having armed squads in many areas came out openly and disturbed the mass movement.(Like in Punjab)In Andhra Pradesh they held a joint all India Peasant Conference against Imperialist dictates of the I.M.F .In the trade Union Movement they led struggles but exhibited powerful economist tendencies.In the opinion of the author the organization toady belongs o the Revisionist Camp. Today it has reverted to boycott of elections but as a result of disunity and theoretical weakness is no more a serious revolutionary force.Below the author desribes the genesis and history of the organization.

Progressive Democratic Students Union upheld Comrade Chandra Pulla Reddy´s line.The C.P.Reddy line opposed individual annihilation but some questions of their line were affected by Opportunism. Comrade C.P.Reddy advocated the use of revolutionary Armed squad actions prematurely .In 1974 Chandra Pula Reddy´s organization merged with the Satya Narayan Singh Group and called the new organization the C.P.Reddy-S.N.Singh Group..It was a Unity of an opportunistic character.He also with S.N.Singh supported the mass movement of Jayaprakash Narayan.Instead of developing mass agrarian revolutionary mass movrement in some stages C.P.Reddy used armed squads to shelter the people´s mass movements.No doubt he formed a huge movement but he opposed Nagi Reddy´s massline formulationIn 1985 the The Chandra Pulla Reddy Group which was the strongest revolutionary group in the 1970´s dwindled it´s mass base.A split took place twice in the Organisation .First the Chandra Pula Redy Group split from the Satya Narayan Singh Group in the 1980.This was because S.N.Singh had called for a United Front with U.S A against the Soviet Union which was class collaborationist.(Ultimatey C.P.Reddys own organization fell victim to theengist 3 Worlds Theory) and also supported the Janata Party(Opposition party) in the post Emergency Period.Later Pyla Vasudeva Rao split the party claiming that Chandra Pulla Reddy became arrogant and careerist and accused his daughter Nirmal of being undemocratic .This split was baseless and based on a personality cult.In Andhra Pradesh both these groups led the Progressive Democratic Students unionIt also led a trade Union movement Throuugh the Indian Federation of Trade Unions..Like in 1978 the Chandra Pulla Reddy Group now led by Comrade Ramchandran participated in the Elections.This helped capitulate the revolutionary forces.Several cadres were l;ost as a result of this.Yet several democratic agitations were held.The party paper Vimochana was regularly brought out .Armed action took place based on Comrade C.P Reddy´s theory of Resistance Struggle.In Punjab the Group played a major role in combating the Khalisatni movement.Several cadres dipped their blood .Their mass Front Kirti Kisan Union led major agitation sof the landed peasantry for minumum wages and agricultural Inputs.However the group had a defective understanding towards revolutionary mass organization and accepted Armed licences from the Indian state.It is one issue procuring arms through illegal means and another accepting armed licences from the state .. This was capitulationist They also could not differentiate from the role of the party and mass organisation and formed the Revolutionary Unity Center an open forum that propagated party politics.They opposed the formation of a mass political front to combat the twin terror of State Repression and Khalistani terror..This group considered that mass organsiations should only be used for economic issues and not for struggles on the political plane.They rejected the need for a separate mass organsiation to create blocks of mass revolutionary resistance. However it must be mentioned that this group played a major role in the democratic movement in that period.This year is the 20th death Anniversary year of Chandra Pulla Reddy who died on Nonember 9th 1984. It must be stated that Chandra Pulla Reddy must be complemented for opposing Charu Mazumdar´s left Adventurist trend as well as Vinod Mishra and Satya Narayan Singh´s right oppurtunism.He also maintained the concept of the secret party and promoted the forming of mass organizations.He also developed an All India Perspective where party Units were formed in all parts of the Country.He always stood against the All India Movement being dictated by the strength of the Andhra Party Squads .He stressed that each State committee must have a distinct style of functioning according to the required situation. He opposed the wrong understanding where all nationality Struggles were supported.He also created a mass base in the trade Unions.His main error was in prematurely advocating participation in the parliamentary election and prematurely xcreating arm,ed squad Units.The C.P.I.M.L New Democracy Group and the Phani Bagchi Group were also 2 split away section sof C.P Reddy The New Democracy Group worked through the peasant front and participated in mass agitation nad trade Union Work.The author as a member of the student Front observed the mass work of the group in Mumbai in the early 1990´s.The work done in the trade Union Front was commendable to the extent big union swere organized at the Airport section and persistent efforts were made to lead the struggles of mill workers in Mumbai against closures.They also consistently participated in joint front activities against state repression through their trade Union Front The Indian Federation of Trade Unions.However a powerful econmist tendency took place in the trade Unions where the Revolutionary politics was virtually detached. The Chandra Pulla Reddy Group started the 1990´s on the revolutionary Path.It led a historic 70,00o strong party rally in Delhi in 1990 March on Bhagat Singh´s martyrdom day opposing the V.P Singh Government and presenting a democratic Charter of Demands.Eg opposing State Repression,withdrawl of paramilitary forces in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh,opposing Police Encounters,opposing the Contract labour system,demanding repeal of black laws Etc..(Earlier on March 1989They staged a 70,000 strong rally) However again on a theoretical plane they were unable to differentiate beween the political mass organistaion and the party and upheld the party banner.Infact they converted a rally to be held in the name of a mass revolutionary political platform into their party Rally,being the strongest Force.Mass organization sparticipated from Maharashtra,Punjab ,Uttar Pradesh Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.The author however observed that amonst the workers mobilized from Mumbai there was a lack of adequate political understanding for such a political event.Revolutionary Slogans were raised but I don´t think they were compatible with the common worker.Overall however it was a great event to witness such a huge assembling of revolutionary forces.Later that year a series of Group clashes emerged with the peoples war Group. In their journals and protests they equated the Peoples war Group like Khalistani forces. They also began to support opportunist Dalit Organisations and advocated forming of a separate Dalit Organisation..In Mumbai although they were active in the Airport workers struggle an economist trend occurred.Emphasis was only given on organising on the basis of partial demands and neglecting political work.True they participated in democratic Organisations but there were strong rightis t tendencies.

6.Assesment of Erstwhile Maoist Communist Centre,C.P.I.M.L.Party Unity Group and the C.P.I.M.L Liberation Group. (Mainly work in Bihar)

In Bihar a huge peasant movement was led by the C.P.I.M.L Liberation Group through the Bihar Pradesh Kisan Sabha,the C.P.I.M.L Party Unity Group(Later merged into Peoples War group wich finally merged into C.P.I.Maoist) through the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti and the Maoist Communist Centre through the Krantikari kisan committees.A major movement was led in the Jehenabad and Palamau districts.Various forms of Struggle were adopted.. Credit must be given particularly to the M.K.S.S and the Indian Peoples Front (in the earlier phase before 1989)where they led broad based pesant movements.However after leading a broad based pesant movement the Indian Peoples Front Capituated to the Revisionist Camp.It upheld Gorbachev´s Russia as Socialist upholding …‘Perestroika´.Earlier it was still upholding the dengist 3 world theory..By 1990 the Vinod Mishra Liberation Groupcapitulated to revisionism practising open party functioning.Their democratic front in which they had electoral alliances with parties like the Janata Dal and the Left parties enhanced this.Although they led a massive revolutionary peasant movement ,a major chunk of their cadre were sacrificed in the election campaigns being subjected to severe state repression.Thus now only 2 major revolutionary groups were left in Bihar. They were the Party Unity Group and the Maoist Communist Centre.In the peasant and youth movement the most significant contribution was made by the former . The C.P.I.M.L Party Unity(Now merged into C.P.I.Maoist,earlier merged into C.P.I.M.L Peoples War) ,in my opinion played he biggest role in the mass movement. The 4 mass organisatiosthe group formed were the Bharat Naujavan Sabha which carried out youth struggles of historic Significance (It was a major achievement that open mass revolutionary agitations for democratic rights,against corruption,in solidarity with peasant struggles,against malpractices in jails and hospitals, were led);the Mazdooor Kisan Sangram Samiti, which developed a historic peasant revolutionary movement;the Nari Mukti Sanghrash Samiti, (Revolutionary Women´s Front) which built a big womens revolutionary Cultural Organisation;and the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad.(Ressurected form of the banned M.K.S.S.)In 1994 the Party Unity Section formed it´s first ever student organization in Bihar,namely the Democratic Students Union which held it´s first State Conference in May) The M.C.C (Now merged with Peoples War Group into the C.P.I.(Maoist).The M.K.S.P set up village schools for Dalit peasants and alternative health facilities in addition to re-organising land and leading successful struggles for Minumum wages. The struggle of the M.K.S.S began on the question of landless peasants not being paid minumum wages.Agricultural workers were paid a paltry one seer kacchha rice per day ,while the legal payment was 4 kg.of rice per day.Major gains were established in this respect.It is of significance that this is he 20th death Anniversary year of Comrade Krishna Singh,the first General Secretary of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti.

The major struggles which these mass organisations led were in Jehanabad and Palamau districts by the Party Unity and in Aurangabad and Gaya by the Maoist Communist Centre.Here the peasant movement had it´s most profound influence.

Inspite of great sacrifices the C.P.I. Maoist is still vitiated by powerful left sectarian trends.The most important issue is their method of carrying Armed Struggle,propogating …‘Active boycott´ as well as their building mass organisations. The Maoist Communist Cente carried out daring armed actions however their actions were not integrated with the peoples movements.True,insome respects they resemble Mao´s path in China but there was a tendency to leave the masses as spectators.In 1987 in Dalechauk Baghera the Maoist Communist Centre carried out a an attack on the Rajputs.Here the Maoist aspect of organising was not adopted even if one accepted such struggle in the Revolutionary Democartic Framework.True it was a an act of revenge against both oppressor caste but still it did not implement the mass line.To some extent here caste struggle was mixed up with cate struggle.(Attack carried out on caste lines)The greatest achievement of Maoist Communist Centre was forming the first revolutionary Student Organisation,the Revolutionary Students League and a strong Cultural organizations,the Krantikari Budhijibi Sangh and the Krantikari Sanskritik Sangh. .It also set up various units of the Krantikari Kisan Commitees,which carried out Peoples Courts against class enemies and distributed land to the tiller. They also consolidated it´s peasant movement .However by the late 1990´s its student and youth front was totally destroyed by enemy forces.Even their Kisan Commitees were suppressed in various areas .True they staged some daring military actions but it is doubtful whether they really integrated with the Peoples The Party Unity Group had a stronger concept of mass line .In theory they agreed to form a revolutionary peasant organization.The author was impressed with reading the Jounal …‘Party Unity´ (the 1996 issue) organ of the C.P.I.M.L Party Unity.(That in1998merged into the C.P.I.M.L Peoples War)They were able to self –critically asses their weakness on the student and youth Front as well as the Peasant front.They were instrumental in building the A.I.P.R.F activities.On the author´s visit in October 2001 one of the greatest protests ever staged in the movement in Bihar took place against the American Govt´s decision to declare War after the September 11th Incident.8,000 peasant activist were mobilized particularly from Bhagalpur in protest .The author also met one Comrade of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha from Daltangonj district who reported a jail struggle led by the youth front for better facilities successfully. The Party Unity Group (In 1998 merged with C.P.I.M.L Peoples War into Peoples War Group which later merged with M.C C.Into C.P.I.Maoist in September 2004) after it´s peasant Front M.K.S S was banned in 1986 re-organisedf itself first into the Mazdoor Kisam Mukti Manch and then the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad. The Lok Sangram Morcha a joint front of several democratic organization led several programmers opposing repression in the form of encounters. Together with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the M.K S.P joint anti –repression programmes were held.The revolutionary peasant movement was strengthened in Jehanabad and Palamau districts.However the open mass forces were subjected to bouts of severe repression.Mass Strugles were led.However the incorrect military line led to severe repression.Just a month a go a call was given for a rally in Patna by the Organsiation.Hoever the rally could not take place.

Although the C.P.I.Maoist cadre in Bihar have made heroic sacrifices their armed actions although with most sincere intentions do not build up a protracted People´s War as propounded by Comrade Mao.There are powerful tendencies of individual heroism .To carry out armed Struggle the Party of the proletariat has to establish it´s leadership over the revolutionary movement as well as having set up organs of parralel political power.Today the level of political consciousness and preparedness is inadequate in Bihar.The people are not sufficiently educated in the politics of seizure of power.Although it is a principal task to set up liberated areas the present co-relation of forces is inadequate to set them up.People have to be trained to organise their own self-defence.Without the above mentioned conditions Armed actions would substitute the role the people need to play.They propogate active boycott of parliamentary elections. The boycott slogan is meaningless until the people have set up alternative organs of people´s revolutionary power.Without the scope of direct revolutionary mass action and setting up of parralel organs of people´s revolutionary power is thus an irresponsible left sectarian orientation.In today´s situation the only suitable tactic is to launch an active political campaign and help people build alternative organs of revolutionary power.(Participation of elections today would lead to capitulationism as the proletarian party lacks sufficient mass political influence.)

There are strong tendencies of forming mass organisations as front organisations.Mass organisations must be given their separate identity.Only when the major section of a mass organisation accepts the politics of the revolutionary party can mass organisations function as front organisations.Although such sections have formed mass organisations there are still tendencies of confusing the mass organisations with the Party.Although on the practical plane they lead a powerful mass democratic movement there is still not enough democratisation as needed in a mass movement within a mass organisation.Mass organisations ,particularly the peasant front need continuous regularisation of commitees and activists working within them have to be encouraged in running the mass organisations. Masses must be trained to take part in political decisions and organise programmes on their own initiative.Infact running mass organisations as front organisations is a form of imposing one´s politics on the people.In Bihar today although there is a healthy trend of revolutionary forces coming together there is lack of a democratic cohesive front organising the people against the two-pronged terror of landlord and State terrorism.Such a front is needed where revolutionary groups do not propogate revolutionary polemics but enhance people to organise their own self defence.Even during the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition Communist revolutionaries of Bihar, however sincerely they protested were unable to set up a mass anti-communal front against communalism and thought it was adequate to fight from the platform of sectional revolutionaryorganisations.Similarly the Communist revolutionaries could not set up an adequate revolutionary democratic platform during the Shankhar bigha and Laxmanpur Bathe massacres.In the major struggle areas of Bihar like Jehanabad and Palamau as well as Aurangabad and Gaya open mass activity is impossible.After an Interview with the Democratic Students Union president Amitabh the author learnt that only in Bhagalpur,Chaibasai and Darsingh Serai Regions was open work possible in the student and youth front.Today organizations like the Democratic Students Union,Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad can hardly function openly in both Bihar and Jharkhand.(Only perhaps in Bhagalpur).The major hurdle of historical importance in the revolutionary movement was the period of armed Group clashes between the squads of the Maoist Communist Centre with the Peoples War Group attacked and killed each other.It showed the wrong understanding towards mass revolutionary line in certain aspects…In West Bengal mass front´s of the peasants students youth and cultural section fought together for democratic struggles.In the trade Union Front left sectarian understanding prevented the groups from working towards a broad based trade Union movement.In the student and youth section although there is a revolutionary movement led by the groups(…‘Go to Village Campaigns´, …‘go to factories and Slum Campaigns´)there is still a lot of glorification is given to armed squad heroes and mass agrarian revolutionary politics is not upheld. Peasant organization were formed by both groups but there was still lack of cohesive revolutionary resistance to combat the onslaught of the C.PI.M.revisionist Forces and isolate them

The other negative phenomenan was the Inter-group clashes.This had a damaging effect on the revolutionary movement.It reduced the masses to helpless spectators.The left-sectarian tactical line of the Erstwhile People´s War Group and theErstwhile Maoist Communist Center had a great role to play in this.For a great part of the revolutionary peasant movement the Party Unity activists were martyred at the hands of the Liberation Group.Since the early 90´s this trend was predominant as seversl peasant organisation activists were martyred in the hands of the Liberation Group.Whether it was correct to fight the Liberation Group the manner they did is a debatable point.However the killing of several of their members by the M.C.C was unexplicable.It reflected the weaknesses in political line.Fortunately the 2 groups(Now merged into the C.P.I Maoist) had later resolved to stop their clashes and solve their differences. This was a healthy sign as reflected by their recent joint action programmes and their press statement.The final merging of the C.P.I.M.L Peoples War with the Maoist Communist Centre into the C.P.I.Maoist is of great historic significance to the Bihar Revolutionary Movement.

In West Bengal mass front´s of the peasants students youth and cultural section fought together for democratic struggles.In the trade Union Front left sectarian understanding prevented the groups from working towards a broad based trade Union movement.In the student and youth section although there is a revolutionary movement led by the groups(…‘Go to Village Campaigns´, …‘go to factories and Slum Campaigns´)there is still a lot of glorification is given to armed squad heroes and mass agrarian revolutionary politics is not upheld. Peasant organization were formed by both groups but there was still lack of cohesive revolutionary resistance to combat the onslaught of the C.PI.M.revisionist Forces and isolate them.

In Delhi in the time of he Erstwhile Party Unity Group there was a strong student and youth movement which was directed to the agrarian revolutionary movement in Bihar.However now that has virtually diminished after severe bouts of repression in Bihar.I Punjab theErswhile Party Uiy Organisation hardly built a mass movement in areas where they worked .They showed defective understanding to concept of mass organization In Punjab during the Khalistani and post Khalistani Movement. Within the Bharatiya Kisan Union they often tried t impose the revolutionary Party Politics and were unable to develop democratic Functioning.

7. Emergence of the Central Re-Organisation Committee C.P.I.M.L and later Formation of C.P.I.M.L (Red Flag)and Impact

In late 1979 the central Re-Organisation Committee of the C.P.I.ML was formed.It was the first organization to uphold the Gang of 4 in China and reject the Dengist 3 Worlds theory. The Organisation´s efforts at an ideological level were the main reason that he term Mao Tse Tung Thought was not replaced by …‘Maoism´.The group predominantly led Struggles in Kerala.It adopted the analysis in 1982 that India is a neo-colony and not a semi-colony.Later The Group capitulated as a result of ideological de-generation.The leader of the Group K.Venu stated that India is a conglomeration of Nationalities and that now the principle contradiction was that between the nationalities and the State.He advocated that all the states would have different Communist Parties fighting for the liberation of each nationality.Eg.Kerala ,Uttar Pradesh,Punjab Etc. Venu also supported the multiparty System and opposed the party as the Vanguard in his document “Proletarian Democracy´..In 1988 a new Group called the Red Flag led by K.N Ramchandran emerged in Kerala.It held proletarian Revolutionary stands on various aspects of the line and opposed Venu´s Line.It stated that the proletarian positions had to be a necessary perquisite to qualify support for any nationality Struggle. The Red Flag Group countered this through propoganda explaining the Leninist Understanding of the line and the need of the proletarian Party. .

In Kerala the Red Flag Group built a strong mass movement.It made strong efforts at countering the revisionist line of Venu.It also led a nationwide historic Unity Platform to unite the proletarian party.It called for a platform of Uniting all Revolutionary forces upholding Mao Tse Tung thought who opposed parliamentarim.It established links with the Peoples war Group ,Chandra Pulla Reddy Group Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India,Central Team and other groups in the Revolutionary Camp.This Organization gave great emphasis on combating sectarianism and stated that Sectarianism was the prime enemy in the movement.It had a strong opinion that in each state every group had a tendency to overemphasise a particular area and not give balanced Emphasis on all the parts of a particular district or state.It brought out a theoretical journal explaining that sectarianism was the chief cause for disunity in the revolutionary Camp.It brought about a most well analysed thesis where they explained the difference between the party and mass struggles .It stressed on not using armed Struggle one sidedly and building up mass protest movements and agitation. It also stressed on not neglecting work on the working class.It upheld the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and opposed participation in elections.The Red Flag Group also stated that secretism was a wrong trend.The secretary K.N Ramchandran stated that The party must openly come out and openly hold it´s banner. He also opposed armed squad actions not integrating with the broad masses.Mass Organisations functioning openly were a necessary perquisite in his view.He also explained the need for joint united actions.The Organisation criticized other revolutionary groups of varying trends for not coming out openly in 1991 in mass revolutionary Campaigns. when state Repression was launched in Andhra Pradesh particularly on the mass movement led by the Peoples War Group as well as when the Revisionist Regimes of he U.S.S R and East European Countries were overthrown.(Groups in their view should have led a united campaign defending Socialism when those regimes were toppled and explained that it was Revisionism and not Socialism that was defeated) Comrade K,N held programmes in Mumbai explaining the Fall of the Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1991.The Red Flag Group criticized revolutionary Groups for not unitedly staging programmes defending Socialism and combating the Revisionist Onslaught in 1989 to 1991. as well as against opposing State Repression in Andhra Pradesh in 1991.Aftrer the Communal riots in Mumbai on the Babri Masjid issue they openly criticized the revolutionary groups for not coming out of their “mountain holes and addressing the masses. …‘They also opposed the Dengist 3 worlds theory stating that it created wrong understanding amongst revolutionary groups. The Red Flag Group explained that left Adventurist understanding of the Charu Mazumdar phase was the result of Lin Biaosm within the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1960´s and the Early 1970´s.The Red Flag Group led a major movement in Kerala in memory of martyred Comrade Verghese.They held huge rallies against the Communist Party Of India Marxist to build a memorial.They also led struggles against Bus fare hikes .During the Collapse of the Communist Regimes in East Europe major mass programmes were staged explaining that it was revisionism that was defeated and not Socialism.Rallies were carried out throughout Kerala.In other regions like West Bengal, Mumbai and Delhi hall meetings were held defending Socialism.One historical Contribution of Red Flag Group was that they defended Mao Tse Tung Thought against using the term Maoism.They also opposed the formation of the Organisation ,the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement and insisted that only an International Revolutionary Platform has to be formed.(Significant in defending proletarian revolutionary line.Please read my essay in the same section on Critique of Mao Tse Tung Thought where I have explained this)The Red Flag section also differentiated against the two deviationist understandings on the question of elections in 1989.They opposed participation as well as did not give the boycott slogan.Instead they gave the call for building the Revolutionary Alternative.The Author is also impressed by the Efforts of the C.P.I.M.L.Red Flag in developing an All India Perspective whereby they functioned in a huge range of states including Kerala ,Tamil Nadu, Karntaka,Maharashtra, Gujarat,Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar ,Madhya Pradesh ,UttarPradesh and Delhi.This was a commendable achievement. 1990 the Leader of the Central Team of the Communist Party of India Marxist Leninist was so impressed that he wished to initiate unity talks with Red Flag Group.However in the mid 1990´s this group deviated from the revolutionary path.The main cause of this was it´s understanding of the Indian State as a neo-colony.India at present is a semi-colony as it is exploited by various Imperialist countries and not just U.S Imperialism.It also opposed feudalism as the main contradiction in India.Having already shown defective understanding on the open functioning of the party they started uniting with right opportunist forces like the Kanu Sanyal Group,the Vinod Mishra Liberation Group Etc.It also opened up it´s party forces completely.This can be attributed to it´s earlier wrong understanding that the party organization must come out openly. True party forces must reach the masses but opening party forces to the state will lead to capitulation. It is like trying to make a fish move without water.(Central Team´s Analysis in their organ Liberation in 1993)The author witnessed the progressive era of the Group in Mumbai. It did it´s level best to create unity, create mass struggles and lead people´s issues. It also did significant work in defending the Peoples war in had hall meetings all over the country.(I was present in Mumbai ina school meeting)In slum areas and chawls campaigns were held opposing the Indian Monetary Fund .Price rise and posters were done in various railway stations.Thee was a tendency of groups to remain huddled in their areas of work which Red Flag Group tried to actively combat.Some Groups were caught up in trade Union work Etc.A youth Front was fprmed .In Kandivli and Malad areas of Mumbai significant work was done to build youth organization and peoples struggles bas on grass roots issues.During the Rath Yatra of the Vishwa Hindu Parisad in 1990 a wall writing campaign was carried out stating , “You temple and mosque builders ,fight for the peoples right to jobs ,food and shelter!)In 1991 the soundness and clarity of the organization was felected in the author´s discussions with Comrade K.N Ramchandran,the secretary of the organsation.He stated that he supported the position of the Front against repression and Communalism in Punjab(the C.C.RI and the Central Team) and wished to establish unity with the groups leading the Front. In the late 1990´s the Group started participating in the Parliamentary elections..It even openly disclosed their Central Committee Members!On the issue of Kargill it took a collaborationist stand where they took no clear cut stand against the Indian government´s action. In it`s stand of Elections not only it proposes unity with revisionist forces like the IndianLeftist parties but it gives no call for building a revolutionary Alternative.

The Author concludes that the Organisation has capitulated to Revisionism.

8. Nationality Question.

In revolutionary theory the C.P.I.Maoist(At the time of taking position the oragnsatios were namely the Peoples War,Party Uity and M.C.C Groups) has deviated to the right on the question of nationality movements.It supported the Jammu and Kashmir National liberation Front treating their movement like a revolutionary armed struggle,not understanding their imperialist content in their ideology.True,the J.K.L.F ifs fighting for a democratic cause of the emancipation of the Kashmiri people from the tyranny of Indian ror Pakistani rule(As decided in the pre-5o`s Plebiscite).In the pre-Independence Period the Kashmir people fought heroic struggles against British Rule and against the Maharaja Dogra.After Partition Sheikh Abdullah asked India for assistance in protection from the Pakistani troops on the condition of a plebiscite which guaranteed Kashmiri people polituical freedom.Nehru, violated this and invaded Kashmir in 1952.The present onslaught of the Indian State on the J.K.LF is totally unjustified because Kasmir never actually became a part of the Indian Union.Infact the Indain Constitution provided for Article 370 which ensured the right of Self-determination for Kashmiri People.It must be remembered that the present Indian semi-colonial Semi-feudal State is a legacy of the British.

In the present Kashmiri movement there are positive aspects and negative aspects.The positive aspect is that it involves the broad masses of the Kasmiri people and has also been secular mantaining the long secular tradition f the Kashmiri people.There have been several heroic clashes of the unarmed Kashmiri masses combatting the Indian Para -Military Forces,in cotrast to terrorist actions of militants.Despite the Hindu revivalist policies of the Indian State (To retrieve Hindutva and build a temple in the RamJanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid Area-destroying the mosque) the Kashmiri people have remained basically secular,not falling prey to Islamic Fundamentalism.The negative features of the J.K.L.F are their national reformist outlook.They have been unable to arouse the peasantry and have also been supportive of movements like the Palestinian Intifafada and the East European movements to topple backward regimes.They also seek support of bourgeois states.This force has also been unable to demarcate from the Communalist Fascist Actions of the Muslim Fundamentalist Outfits like the Hizbul-Muzahideen,who threatened the common people.This group is openly communal.As a result of the looseness in the J.K.L.F leaders politics such Groups gained political Ascendancy.They are also launching attacks on the Hindu Community in Kasmir to communalise the situation by dividing the people.The J.K.L.F ,unfortunately is not effectively countering such propoganda.The pegging the Kashmiri National movement to the partial political aim of exercising political determination,towards carving out a separate Kashmir State,without challenging the neo-colonial Grip of Imperialism.Only if the Kashmiri democratic Forces ,having anti-imperialist anti-feudal political orientation ,gain ascendancy,and if all the active fraternal support of all the opressed masses is secured on the basis of common interests,would the Kashmiri National Movement be able to withstand the strong enemy pressure and the Challenge of Fundamentalist Forces.
Important Notes.

1.The Integrity of a democratic State is determined by the national integrity of it`s peoplewhich itself is the end product of the Objective Integration and the Economic,social and Cultural Life of the Peopleand the attendantnational Consciousness and commitment.Likewise,the Integrity of a multi-national Democratic State is determined by the Voluntary Union of the Constituent nationsor People`s,on the basis of equal Status,mutual respect and mutual benefit.Then ,the Integrity of a State is regarded as inviolable.

2.There is no conflict of National Interests amongst various peoples of India.Their National Interests converge on the common basisc task of overthrowing the basic rule of Imperialism and it`s Subservient Indian Partners,for opening up the path of self-reliant democratic development.

3.The basic interests of the Indian People in general,as against those of the Indian Rulers,are incompatible with the National Opression of or discrimianation against any of the Constituent Nationalities of India.That is the objective basis for them to raise the banner of unity of all the Indian People in contest with the Indian Rulers banner of integrity of the Indian State.Unless this objective basis finds tangible expression in their actual opposition to National Opression or relative National discrimination,the banner of all the Indian People`s Unity cannot acquire credibility with those nationalities who have grievances with their relative discrimination.The most comprehensive version of such an opposition is the firm stand of upholding the right of every constituent Nationality of India to National Self Detemination.

4.The Kashmiri people have the exclusive right to decide their own national Staus and identity,and that any extraneous pressure or use of force to deny or distort the exercise of this right by the Kashmiri People is Impermissible.

In a similar way the P.WG supported the U.L.F A in Assam and the L.T.T E in Sri Lanka.These organizations have not made a clear-cut differentiation beween anti-imperialist and ruling class forces.Trrue,they stand for the Assamese and Tamilian people people but they collaborates with opportunist forces and their politic sis vitiated with a lack of clear-cut proletarian content.The most capitulationist position taken by the Peoples War Group was to uphold Bhindranwale as a martyr during the Khalistani Movement and support the Khalistani Armed Squad actions against the Indian State.The Party Unity Group did however oppose the Khalistani terrorism.In the merger period(In 1998 when the Peoples War Group and the Party Unity Group merged) the Peoples War Group rectified this error by rejecting the Akali Movement.(Please read my Article …‘Burning Punjab´ on the Khalistani Movement in the Backgrounds section)

9.Wrong Trends within the C.P.I.(Maoist) in Andhra Pradesh with regards to Military Line.(until 3 months ago C.P.I.M.L Peoples War Group)

The Srikakulam Girijan Sangham was formed in 1958 under the leadership of the Communist Party.The Girijans are an opressed tribal community in Andhra Pradesh and under the leadership of the Communist Party of India formed their democratic mass organisation. In the late 60`s as a result of Charu Mazumdar`s left deviationist line the organisation was virtually disbanded.There was a major mass peasant revolutionary Struggle in Srikakulam which remains in the history books of the Communist movement.However though the People`s War Group rectified the Charu Mazumdar line to some extent by forming mass organisations like the Rytu Coolie Sangham and the Radical Students Union, they continued with their line of” annihilation of class enemies.”In the early 80`s the Srikakulam Girijan Sangham was re-organised and very often when mass agitations were launched the People`s War Group remained aloof.(Unintentionally) One example was the agitation for opposing the scrapping on Land Regulation Act Regulation1 of 19 70 which ensured land rights for the Girijans who had been discriminated by other classes of peasants.The non-tribal peasants continuously seized their lands and forced the Girijans to become coolies or bonded labourers.In fact in 1992 The People`s War Group carried out an action against a class enemy which the Srikakulam Girijan Sangham judged to be against the interests of the Revolutionary movement. A handbill was distributed that such actions were like killing the Mosquito but not dealing with the breeding pit.
Several Group Clashes occurred between the People`s War Group and other groups like the Ramchandran Group.New Democracy Group etc where the masses were reduced to helpless spectators.Armed Squads combated members from other groups struggling to maintain their bases!This was an incorrect approach to the question of mass line and politicalStruggle.One Group always feared the entry of another group in their area of work.Thus the Communist Revolutionary Groups behaved antagonistically with one another.In fact the State benefited from this

.At the conclusion of the decade 3 important leaders of the People´s war Group were slain in a police encounter. A massive anti-repression programme took place in Andhra Pradesh in December 1999.Such Comrades were truly the best sons of the land heroically laying down their lives for liberation.Various communist Revolutionary Groups belonging to various groups participated.The People`s War Group launched retaliatory Actions to give a severe blow to the Indian State.After the armed Actions the People`s War Group made a self-critical assesment stating”Even when there were ample opportunities to educate and involve the People,our cadres only resorted to protest actions.These are incorrect actions.Because of non-participation of people in such actions,the outcome of such actions, is contrary to the impact we wanted”Thus this group was not aware that such armed actions of Party Guerilla Squads,by themselves cannot succeed in their basis and ultimate objective of defeating the reactionary State.Infact the people have to own such actions and voluntarily participate in them with revolutionary political Consciousness and confidence in their own organised strength.Even in the post encounter Joint Protests the leading rank of the People`s War Group remained pre-occupiedwith either the representative team protests or armed retaliatory actions.-thus their organized attempts for militant mass attempts for militant mass political mobilisations remained Sparse.One cannot deny the People`s War Group for their bravery and tenacity in standing upto the tyranny of the Stae and retaliating against it but without a correct approach towards mass armed Struggle the Revolutionary movement will not build up properly.

Why are the vast masses of people in the areas under the influence or control of Peoples war remain, laregely as spectators or silent sympathizers?Why they find themselves helpless when confronted with the heavy arm of the state?Thousands of acres of land remain fallow for years even in areas where the land was said to have been re-distributed and the landlords were chased from the villages.Why?

Many action s by the armed formation sof the Peoples war where they sought to dictate terms on the strength of weapon are dubious-assasinated individuals indiscriminately,mined the fields,blew up buildings and installations Etcthe way they carried out the election boycott line and verdicts of the Peoples Courts and the way they sought to assert and establish the revolutionary Supremacy over other organizations invited wide criticism,condemnation and even protest among the people,democratic and Progressive Circles.The Peoples war leadership ,belatedly expressed it´s regret at some of them,but continued in some form ,or the other,the same practice even later.The Peoples War leadership without taking account of the level and nature of the movement with regards to the state of class Struggle and agrarian revolutionary Movement in their areas of Struggle.Their military formations and operations are not in relation to the level of class struggle and Agrarian Revolutionary Movement.Their types of activities and actions that their formations carry out do not take into account the people´s Consciousness and preparedness,organization and participation in the struggle to a higher level .Some of their armed actions dampen and even negate the People´s mass struggles. In reality the Peoples war Group although the Strongest revolutionary force in the Country suffers from sectarianism,militarism and anarchism. It has a big brother approach to other revolutionary organizations. Only when in dire need do they form united Fronts with other revolutionary Groups ,resorting to mass mobilizations on general issues. Their indiscriminate armed actions, assassination of Individuals and destruction of properties by thev armed bands may pose some trouble and loss, but they cannot pose a grave danger to the system as such.The Peoples war leadership claim to have vast areas under the leadership of their guerrilla Zones or areas of Influence.Theya lso declare that they have formed their own Peoples Guerilla Army.Howevever although they have a semblance to Mao´s line in reality they still have not developed the correct practice pf Maoist Protracted Peoples Military Warfare.(From Frontier article by Chakrapani in February2002)

On the trade Union Front the Peoples War Group has not been able to form democratically functioning trade Unions and often has ended up giving political slogans of revolutionary Armed Struggle not compatible with the political capacity of broad sections of the Working Class.The Working class was not fully explained the link between their interests and the agrarian revolutionary movement but slogans glorifying heroes of Armed squads are raised by the Peoples War Group.

True since the 1980´s members of squads of the Peoples War Group made heroic sacrifices literally dipping their blood.A huge peasant movement was led in Andhra Pradesh and at al All India level on the initiative of the organization fronts like the All India Revolutionary Students Federation and the All India league for revolutionary culture(With collaboration of M.C.C and Party Unity Forces) were formed The author remembers the 19980 Rytu Coolie Sanghanm Conference in Warangal in Andhra Pradesh where arally of 4 lakh peasants took place as though a tornado had emerged. However in such fronts Mao Tse Tung thought was imposed as the guiding ideology and a necessary part of the manifesto which acts against the democratic nature of a mass organization.The author rembers going to the 1989 A.I R.S F Conference.(In 1985 the first All ndia Revolutinary Student federation was formed comprising of organizations from Andhra Pradesh,Wset Bengal,Punjab Etc.Trrue there were 10,000 delegates, a remarkable achievement but how may mass student participants in the country can be mobilsed under the banner of Mao Tse Tung Thought? In the …‘Charu era´ it was advocated that mass organisations should be abandoned.The P.W.G later made a rectification in the late 70´s and decided to form mass organisations.However there was a strong tendency to form mass organisations as front organisations and thus impose the party´s views on the mass organisations.In a revolutionary movement the party must function democratically within mass organisations.The political line of the mass organisation and party must not be confused.Only at certain stages of a revolutionary movement can mass organisations function as front organisations. This is when mass sections within the mass organisation accept the party´s politics.There were tendencies to impose Mao-Tse-Tung thought in the manifesto of mass organisations.Mass organisations were used as party platforms.Mao always stressed on seperating the role of the mass organisations with the Party .He always stressed that The Chinese Communist Party had to be differentiated from the Youth league and the Peasants Associations.The Chinese Red Army placed particular emphasis on democratically working within mass organisations and not imposing politics.

Another left deviation is the line of boycott of elections and armed struggle. The party has carried out several armed actions.However they have not all received mass support and often substituted the people´s role. Although one cannot deny the sincerity of the armed squads,the armed actions have to be based on the strength of the people´s movements as advocated by Mao.Armed stuggle is totally necessary to fight the revisionist line but has to be carried out at the appropriate time.Only when alternate organ´s of people´s power have been founded can the tactic of …‘active boycott of parliamentary elections´ be used effectively.Political education of the people has to take place.The C.P.I(Maoist) has built up powerful peasant movements in Andhra and Dandkarnaya .They have to be give n credit for this. However the left adventurist trends have to be fought against to develop the revolutionary movement.The experience of the Chinese Communist party in re-organising after the Chingkanshan movement and starting armed Struggle has to be studied in this regard.Mao`s struggle against the left deviationist LI-Li San line and the rightist Chang Kuo-Ta line was significant .Ultimately Mao`s mass line was supported in the 1935 Tsunyi conference.All the armed actions of the Red Army were based on the people.The success of the Long March testified this.

10.All India Peoples Resistance Forum.

On the All India Front the historic achievement was the founding of the All India Peoples Resistance Forum in 1992 by the Peoples War Group,Maoist Communist Centre and Party Unity Group. It United the Revolutionary Forces country wide Fro Punjab to Karnataka. In 1992 a spectacular rally was staged involving 10 lakh people who came mainly from the states of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. Thousands participated from West Bengal and Maharashtra.In 1994 officially the Forum was formed in Calcutta.This played a major role in uniting the revolutionary peasant movements of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Dandkarnaya.It is significant that in 1995 the Maoist Communist Centre pulled out of the All India Peoples Resistance Forum.They claimed that the forum should have given the election boycott slogan ,not understanding that it was a wrong to use such type of mass front for that use.The A.I.P.R.F could give solidarity to election boycott campaigns but it was not in their scope to actively propogate boycott of election.Thisshowed M.C.C´s defective understanding on the question of mass organization. In Bihar it did not advocate forming a separate revolutionary peasant organization and only called form forming revolutionary peasant committees.(Unlike the Party Unity which formed the M.K S.S)In 1996 the A.I.P.R.F held their first All India Conference.They passed anti Imperialist Resolutions,opposed repression on Democratic Rights,upheld Nationality Struggles.In August 1997 the Organisation held a seminar on the true Face of 50 years of Indian Independence in Mumbai in Matunga.It was of historic significance that after 50 years the rulers followed the same colonial policies of the British Rulers. The conference was a major achievement .I t dealt with all aspects from Democratic Rights to anti Imperialist ,to revolutionary Peasant Struggles ,Working Class Struggles and Nationality Struggles. Speakers from all Democratic Walks of life participated .Of great significance were the talks of the revolutionary peasant Struggles. Wrong trends were exhibited like participation of Non Governmental Organisations,wrongly upholding nationality movements ,but such an all India gathering with a revolutionary perspective was historic ,in front of my eyes.It was a tribute to the Peoples war and Party Unity Groups.One complementary aspect of the A.I.P.R.F was that it took several people into it´s struggle who were not direct participants in the revolutionary movements of Dandkaranya,Andhra Pradesh and Bihar but were participants in democratic struggles against imperialism.Eg The opposing of the Narmada Project in Gujerat,Farmers protest against Globalisation in Karnataka and Punjab Etc.The formation of the Forum is major step in All India Perspective to the revolutionary Movement.

11.Other Groups

C.P.I.M.L New Democracy or Prajapandha Group is the strongest group within the revolutionary camp representing the rightist trend.This organisation has peasant organization sin West Bengal ,Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Bihar. as well as trade Uion soin West Bengal,Andhra Pradesh.They participate in elections and oppose the line of the C.PI.I (Maoist)as left sectarian.They fail to understand that only after sufficient development of the party of the proletariat can participation be used as a tactic in the parliamentary elections.They are fast embracing revisionism and their mass organizations are vitiated with economism and lack of political co ntent.Agittaion s are organized but without grasp of proletarian revolutionary line.In Trade Unions often movements are led without connecting the political signifiacance to the Workers.

The R.C.C.I.M.L in Punjab is one of the 3-organisations in India which is part of the Revolutionary Internationalist movement. It´s activities are confined to Punjab They have done programmes promoting solidarity to Peruvian Revolution as well as paying Tribute to Comrade Mao during his death anniversary in 1994.However they basically support the left sectarian line advocated by the C.P.I Maoist,with minor errors.During the Khalistani movement they had defective understanding often countering the mass actions of the Front against Repression and Communalism with armed squad actions.In recent years they have done little work beyond propoganda in Punjab.They still do not uphold the 1960 C.PI.ML of Charu Mazumdar which is significant.

The C.PI.M.L Naxalabari was formed by Comrades for the K.Venu branch of the C.R.C the Red Flag Group(Read Notes on Red Flag Group) they fought against Venu´s liquidationsim towards armed nationality struggles replacing the national revolution and re-organised as the Keral Communist Party in the 1990´s.They are active in the Revolutionary International Movement and wefe the first proponents of Maoism. Today at an All India level they have made littleimpact.Only in Kerala do they have major mass work.(Left Sectarian line in my opinion)

There are groups like the Communist Organisation of India Marxist Leninst led by Kanu Sanyal which have totally capitulated to revisionism forming joint Front´s with opposition ruling class forces.The Kanu Sanyal Groupis in the process of merging with the C.P.I.M.L RedFlag Group.Even the P.C C group led by Santosh Rana,the Ashim Chaterjee Group and the C.O.C C.P.I.M.L can be categorized in the same manner.The final trend worth mentioning is that of the Commuist League of India ,which advocates India to be a Capitalist Country and proposes Socialist Revolution instead of a new Democratic one.This is a capitulationist viewpoint. The section of Central Team of the C.P.I.M.L which condemned their major organisation in Punjab from merging into the C.P.R.C.I.M.L have further split into separate sections statewise in Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal and Maharashtra.This reflects the disInitegration of the old line.Earlier the All India section (which did not merge into the C.P.R.C.I.M.L) backed unity with the Peoples War Group and supported their armed struggle in Bihar.Andhra Pradesh and Dandkaranay. In Maharashtra the organization became virtually inactive and also made little impact in West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.Under the guidance of Comrade Sunder Navalkar in Maharashtra even before the formation of the Central Team ,a political Mass Paper called, …‘Jasood´ was brought out which commemorated it´s 25th Anniversary year in 1998 .This is one of the most consistent revolutionary journals of a mass political nature defending Mao Tse Tung Thought.In the trade Union Front commendable work was done amongt Air India and Construction Workers. Groups… However left sectarian understanding Prevented the Navalkar section from developing a proletarian mass line and in the last 15 years their trade Unions have moved towards economism and legalism.True some major public meetings were held attended by the author like a meeting in Dadar Area in Mumbai defending Socialism after Revisionist U.S S R.collapsed in 1991,inviting other revolutionary Groups. A public meeting was also held commemorating the 30th anniversary year of the Naxalbari Struggle During the 1992-1993 Communal Riots in Mumbai her trade Union brought out a significant political document.A public meeting was also held commemorating the 30thanniveresary year of the Naxalbari Struggle. True this veteran comrade has played the role of a soldier in the Revolutionary movement particularly in the Naxalbari Period and at the time of the formation of the Central Team Group.She defended major aspects of the Marxist Leninist Movement.Infact at one stage she was praising the Maharashtra section of the U.C.C.R.I.M.L.Personally I admire her efforts more than any comrade in the state.The left sectarian understanding of Sunder Navalkar was displayed when she opposed her Central Team Section(Non –punjab) from merging into the C.P.R.C.I.M.L in 1994.(The Major part of the Organisation which was the Punjab section merged into the C.P.R.C.I.M.L.)It is significant that Comrade Sunder Navalkar in 1995 opposed her trade Union Organisation of Air India Airport workers from joining a joint Front demonstration opposing Contract labour because Unions of the C.P.I.M.LJanashakti group were participating.This displayed sectarianism.In 1997 during the commemoration of te Naxalbari her Section in Mumbai boycotted the joint Front meeting as the Janashakti Group was part of the Front.

12.Historic Unity.

In August 1998 the Peoples War Group merged with the Party Unity Group.This was a historic step as for years the 2 groups had carried out Unity talks and ultimately agreed on all the basic questions of the line.Since the 1980´s the 2 organisations developed a close rapport and exchanged experiences.It brought together 2 major revolutionary movements in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.In September 20002 another historic event took place whereby the Maoist Communist Centre merged with the Peoples war Group to form the Communist Party of India(Maoist).They claim to be the unified all India Party a and say that it was a culmination of the merging of the original Charu Mazumdar C.P.I.M.L(In 1998 after merging with Party Unity the Peoples War Group claimed to have re-organised the Charu Mazumdar C.P.I.M.L) with the Maoist Communist Cente formed by Kanhai Chaterjee in 1969.For decades there were unity talks between the 2 organisations.however this formation is still vitiated with left sectarian understanding.(Refer to earlier part of understanding)in regards to the military line,attitude towards mass organizations and towards other revolutionary groups.Thet claim to have formed a peoples Guerilla Army.Their boycott call is often meaningless as in certain areas of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar they have supported candidates of opportunist parties like the Bahujan Samaj.To defeat Enemy forces they have sometimes called for supporting opposition candidates which shows the inconsistency of properly implementing the tactic of Active boycott of parliamentary lectins.We must study the experience oh how Comrade Mao led the Chinese Communist Party on forming liberated areas.The Chingkanshan Experience has to be studied as well as the methods adopted in the strategic defensive military era ,strategic equilibrium and the Strategic offensive.The Red Army was founded on the basis of a mass agarian revolutionary peasant movement and it´s formation was based on the people´s movements .It was the equivalent of making a solid foundation and building a pyramid or the relationship of a wheel with an axle.Today the organization claims to have developed guerilla Zones and base areas.In actual fact in Andhra Pradesh,Dandkaranya and Bihar there are pockets of revolutionary resistance dictated by armed squads.The armed actions on police stations ,whatever the sincerity of the squad members often replace the mass movements ,rather than supplement them.They are losing more and more cadre day by day and are unable to consistently replace the fighting forces lost.It is also significant that as a consequence of their squad actions it is not only the cadre of the organization that is attacked by the State but also ordinary sympathizers and civilians.Mass Organisations like the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union or the Rythu Coolie Sangham can never carry out open activities or agitations.The People´s Guerilla Army which ultimately aims to form a peoples liberation Army has to develop a concept of correct military line.In their struggles areas actions are performed which are inadequate to level of people´s consciousness.There is also lack of revolutionary mass work in the major cities relating the trade Union work to the Agrarian revolutionary Struggle.Left sectarian slogans are taken within their trade Unions which the workers find difficult to relate with their day to day lives.The relationship of the movements in the towns with the major cities is like a bark of a tree with it´s branches.True in there are Unions like the Signakeri coal mine Union in Andhra Pradesh as well as Unions in West Bengal.In major states of Struggle open mass work is virtually impossible and thus there is an ineffective role of revolutionary mass organizations.True major rallies have been led containing sympathizers but this is not necessarily mean that the mass line is being carried out.In the 1997 Rally commemorating the 30th Anniversary of the Naxalbari Armed Struggle there was a mobilization of over 10 lakhs but the methods of mobilization resorted to were not consistent in relation to the consciousness of the broad masses.The content of mass agrarian revolutionary line ,building of revolutionary mass organizations and democratic Organisations of peoples power was ineffectively explained.Today the C.P.I Maoist is having negotiations with the Andhra Pradesh Government.Is this the same situation confronted by Comrade Mao in 1937 when he united with Chiang Kai Shek´s Kuomintang forces?This is evidence of the fact that left adventurist politics ultimately is the root of right deviation.The manner in which Comrade Mao within a single party fought against Wang Mings´ left deviation as well as the 14 Russian Bolsheviks proposing armed urban insurrection is of great significance.The methods used by the Peruvian Communist Part before they initiated armed struggles as well as the Communist Party of Phillipines would be also a reference point in mass line.This organization also has a big brother approach to other revolutionary organizations.They fail to understand that the development of the unified proletarian party is only in it´s re-building stage and all the groups are only components of the final unified party like many part´s of a machine.6 years ago(by the Erstwhile Peoples War Group) they condemned a revolutionary group the C.P.I.M.L New Democracy Group as a revisionist outfit and unjustly slandered the group .In Malkangiri In Orissa it has advocated similar big brotherly treatment to the Malkangiri Adivasi Sangh carrying out armed action and giving little attention to the painstaking approach of mass struggles.It wrote about the organization as if all it´s activities were focused on combating the mass movement led by them.In Mumbai a similar attitude was displayed in joint front protests against state repression on members of their organization.They have also wrongly replaced the term Maoism with Mao Tse Tung Thought.This is wrong understanding of the present era which is actually the era of Leninism.Even after the Chinese revolution it was called the “thought of Mao Tse Tung” and not …‘ Maoism.´By being a part of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement the Organisation is promoting the wrong trend at the International level calling prematurely for the formation of a Communist International. Before sufficient development of Communist Parties Worldwide.(Refer to Article on Mao Tse Tung Thought)It is significant that even in earlier periods the Organisations supported the 1989 Chinese Student Movement as well as the movements in East European Countries toppling the Revisionsit Regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989 ,not taking into account the petit bourgeois nature of the agitations ,virtually devoid of proletarian content. They also have not made sufficient study of the Telengana Armed Struggle.It must be noted that nowhere in Andhra Pradesh,Dandkaranya or Bihar has any struggle been developed even half as strong as the Telengana One. In Punjab and Maharashtra powerful deviationist tendencies have been exhibited. About 12 years ago in Maharashtra on grounds of opposing foreign funding and collaborating with Non Governmental Organisations majority of members o f the Maharashtra Section were expelled.In Punjab there is strong left sectarian Understanding in the functioning of the C.P.I.Maoist in the Bharatiya Kisan Union(Landed Farmers Union).The Union was a general democratic fighting organization of the middle and landed peasantry and thus it could not be converted into a revolutionary Peasant Assocciation to become a front organization of the revolutionary Party.The Union could only be a launching pad or a base to create such an organization.There were strong tendencies of revolutionary groups like C.P.I.Maoist(At that time Peoples War and Earlier Party Unity) working within the Bharatiya Kisan Union Ekta of imposing the Party Politics on the mass Organisations.They Introduced Maoist politics not compatible with the Consciousness of the masses.True the Proletarian Politics has to be introduced within a mass organization without which a proletarian revolutionary movement cannot be created but only when the masses have been imbibed with the necessary Political Consciousness.In this light in 1998 the revolutionary Group violated the revolutionary Norms by giving a call to the Punjab peasants to participate in an anti-W.T.O.rally in Delhi.The correct trend within the B.K.U emphasized the need for a revolutionary Democratic movement but made continuous efforts to only raise slogans in accordance to the Consciousness of the members of the Union..The need for instilling the correct revolutionary level of Consciousnesss before introducing the higher level revolutionary Party Politics is the Equivalent of giving Anesthesia to a patient before a heart operation.

There is also an erroneous understanding with regards to he Dalit or scheduled caste movements. The Organization has not applied a correct class analytical study and often replaced class struggle with Caste Struggle.Dalit Parties which collaborate with Ruling Class politics have been supported like he DAlit Panther and Republican Party of India.The Dalit Mahasabha has been supported in Andhra Pradesh.Even In Bihar in the agrarian revolutionary movement there has been a strong tendency to support Ruling class Dalit Organisations.Killings have taken place often on caste line instead of implementing class struggle.

However we must complement this Unity as progressive.It is most principled with regards to Internal and International line and has succeeed in promoting the Interests of the Ultimate Unified party.Avenues for a strong All India Perspective have been launched.After the group clashes in Bihar between the Peoples War Group and the Maoist Communist Centre it is a great achievement that they could merge and resolve differences.They made self-criticism which is praiseworthy in the Marxist Leninist Sense.Their mass organizations cadres have made heroic sacrifices in fronts like the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Parishad in Bihar and the Radical Students Union and the Rytu Coolie Sangham in Andhra Pradesh .The efforts of the organsation to give solidarity to the revolutionary struggles in Peru,Nepal and Phillipines is noteworthy.If they could extricate themselves from their wrong trends it may not be a long time before the India New Democratic Revolution would emerge.

The Author ends the essay paying homage to all martyrs who have dipped their blood towards the New Democratic Revolution of both rightist and left sectarian tendencies.(Majority constitute the martyrs of Charu Mazumdar´s C.P.I.M.L, Erstwhile Maoist Communist Centre,Erstwhile Party Unity and Peoples War Groups,Erstwhile Chandra Pulla Reddy Group)It is of no strange coincidence that this year marks the 30th anniversary year of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union(formed in 1974) and the 20th death anniversary of Comrade Chandra Pulla Reddy.(died on November 9th 1984 in Calcutta)

By Harsh Thakor

Reference to

1 Peoples March

2. Vanguard

3. Red Star.

4. World to Win

5. Resistance

6. Party Unity

7. The Comrade

8. The Frontier.

9. Mukti Marg.

I also give my heartiest thanks to Comrade Mohan Bose of the United Labour Union,who inspired me to write such an essay. He suggested that I write a Critique on the Revolutionary Groups in India and publish it as a document.(In days when I was going through turmoil in evaluation of correct line)